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Southern Heritage Advancement Preservation and Education :: Forums :: General :: Did You Know
 
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Union Treatment of "Contraband" and Freedmen
Moderators: gpthelastrebel, Patrick
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Lady Val
Sat Mar 21 2009, 04:35PM
Registered Member #75
Joined: Sat Nov 01 2008, 11:22AM
Posts: 475
Union Treatment of Slaves

Found these accounts regarding Southern blacks being oppressed by Federal authorities. On many occasions these are described as "worse than slavery".

"Freedpeople throughout the Union-occupied South often toiled harder and longer under Federal officers and soldiers than they had under slave owners and overseers--and received inferior food, clothing, and shelter to boot."

--"Free At Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War", 1992 edited by Ira Berlin, & others.

This is a letter written by Federal Chaplain and Surgeons, dated Dec 29th 1862, Helena, Arkansas:

General:

The undersigned Chaplains and Surgeons of the army of the Eastern District of Arkansas would respectfully call your attention to the Statements and Suggestions following. The Contrabands within our lines are experiencing hardships oppression & neglect the removal of which calls loudly for the intervention of authority. We daily see & deplore the evil and leave it to your wisdom to devise a remedy. In a great degree the contrabands are left entirely to the mercy and rapacity of the unprincipled part of our army (excepting only the limited jurisdiction of Capt. Richmond) with no person clothed with specific authority to look after & protect them. Among the list of grievances we mention these: Some who have been paid by individuals for cotton or for labor have been waylaid by soldiers, robbed, and in several instances fired upon, as well as robbed, and in no case that we can now recall have the plunderers been brought to justice--The wives of some have been molested by soldiers to gratify their licentious lust, and their husbands murdered in endeavoring to defend them, and yet the guilty parties, though known, were not arrested. Some who have wives and families are required to work on the Fortifications, or to unload Government Stores, and receive only their meals at the Public table, while their families, whatever provision is intended for them, are, as a matter of fact, left in a helpless & starving condition. Many of the contrabands have been employed, & received in numerous instances, from officers & privates, only counterfeit money or nothing at all for their services. One man was employed as a teamster by the Government & he died in the service (the government indebted to him nearly fifty dollars) leaving an orphan child eight years old, & there is no apparent provision made to draw the money, or to care for the orphand child. The negro hospital here has become notorious for filth, neglect, mortality & brutal whipping, so that the contrabands have lost all hope of kind treatment there, & would almost as soon go to their graves as to their hospital. These grievances reported to us by persons in whom we have confidence, & some of which we known to be true, are but a few of the many wrongs of which they complain For the sake of humanity, for the sake of Christianity, for the good name of our army, for the honor of our country, cannot something be done to prevent this oppression & stop its demoralizing influences upon the Soldiers themselves? Some have suggested that the matter be laid before the Department at Washington, in the hope that they will clothe an agent with authority to register all the names of the contrabands, who will have a benevolent regard for their welfare, though whom all details of fatigue & working parties shall be made though whom rations may be drawn & money paid, & who shall be empowered to organize schools, & to make all needful regulations for the comfort & improvement of the condition of the contrabands; whose accounts shall be open at all times for inspection, and who shall make stated reports to the Department--

All which is respectfully submitted Samuel Sawyer, Pearl P. Ingall, J.G. Forman

Another letter by Charles Stevenas to Lt. J. H. Metcalf (Acting Assistant Adjutant General) on Jan. 27, 1863 describes working conditions of contrabands at Kenner, La.:

"The reason the negros gave for their filthy conditions was that they had no time to clean up in. On inquiry I found they have worked from sunrise till dark, Sundays included, since last Sept. ..."

"My cattle at home are better cared for than these unfortunate persons." --Col. Frank S. Nickerson, U.S. Army

Elsewhere at Fortress Monroe in the Virginia theatre, Lewis C. Lockwood, a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts testifies that this kind of abuse was committed on a widespread extent. In a letter dated Jan 29, 1862 he writes: "Contrabandism at Fortress Monroe is but another name for one of the worst forms of practical oppression - Government slavery. Old Pharaoh slavery was government slavery and Uncle Sam's slavery is a counterpart..."

"But most of the slaves are compelled to work for government for a miserable pittance. Up to town months ago they had worked for nothing but quarters and rations. Since that time they have been partially supplied with clothing – costing on an average $4 per man. And in many instances they have received one or two dollars a month cash for the past town months..." "Yet, under the direction of Quarter Master Tallmadge, Sergeant Smith has lately reduced the rations, given out, in Camp Hamilton, to the families of these laborers and to the disabled, from 500 to 60. And some of the men, not willing to see if their families suffer, have withdrawn from government service. And the Sergeant has been putting them in the Guard-house, whipping and forcing them back into the government gang. In some instances these slaves have been knocked down senseless with shovels and clubs."

"But I have just begun to trace the long catalogue of enormities, committed in the name of the Union, freedom and justice under the Stars and Stripes.

Yours with great respect, Lewis C. Lockwood

Mrs. Louisa Jane Barker, the wife of the Chaplain of the 1st Mass. Heavy Artillery writes in 1864 regarding a contraband camp near Ft. Albany, in northern Virginia: the camp, referred to as a "village" by Mrs. Barker was ordered to be cleared out by order of Gen. Augur. "This order was executed so literally that even a dying child was ordered out of his house---The grandmother who had taken care of it since its mothers death begged leave to stay until the child died, but she was refused."

"The men who were absent at work, came home at night to find empty houses, and their families gone, they knew not whither!--Some of them came to Lieut. Shepard to enquire for their lost wives and children---In tears and indignation they protested against a tyranny worse than their past experiences of slavery---One man said, 'I am going back to my old master---I never saw hard time till since I called myself a freeman.' "

The following is a letter written by the colored men of Roanoke Island, N.C. on Mar 9th 1865 regarding the mistreatment they have received by the Federal Army. The letter was probably drafted by a black school teacher among them named Richard Boyle.

Writing President Lincoln regarding the actions of Superintendent, Capt. Horace James: "..Soon as he [Superintendent] sees we are trying to support our selves without the aid of the government he comes and make a call for the men, that is not working for the government to goe away and if we are not willing to goe he orders the guards to take us by the point of the bayonet, and we have no power to help it we known it is wright and are willing to doe any thing that the President or our head commanders want us to doe but we are not willing to be pull and haul a bout so much by those head men as we have been for the last two years and we may say get nothing for it, last fall a large number of we men was conscript and sent up to the front and all of them has never return Some got kill some died and when they taken them they treated us mean and our owner ever did they taken us just like we had been dum beast."

In another letter of the same date: "We want to know from the Secretary of War has the Rev Chaplain James [Capt.James] which is our Superintendent of negros affairs has any wright to take our boy children from us and from the school and send them to Newbern to work to pay for they ration without they parent consint if he has we thinks it very hard indeed... " "...the next is concerning of our White soldiers they come to our Church and we treat them with all the politeness that we can and some of them treats us as though we were beast and we cant help our selves Some of them brings Pop Crackers and Christmas devils and throws a mong the woman and if we say any thing to them they will talk about mobin us. we report them to the Capt he will say you must find out which ones it was and that we cant do but we think very hard it they put the pistols to our ministers breast because he spoke to them about they behavour in the Church..."
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red house
Fri Mar 27 2009, 01:14PM
Registered Member #89
Joined: Wed Feb 18 2009, 11:07PM
Posts: 40
deleted: (dbl post)

[ Edited Fri Mar 27 2009, 01:16PM ]
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red house
Fri Mar 27 2009, 01:15PM
Registered Member #89
Joined: Wed Feb 18 2009, 11:07PM
Posts: 40
Those who are honest and know their History well will admit that most of the men who initially joined the Union ranks did so for the sole purposes of "restoring the Republic" and "punishing the treason" of the rebels, and anyone well acquainted with the facts will acknowledge the regrettable truth that the Emancipation Proclamation which effectively made Abolition a war objective, was not something that was well received by all who served. That many were willing to sacrifice themselves to 'save the Republic' - but were less than enthusiastic about shedding their blood and the blood of others to eradicate the uncivilized institution that split the Republic - is a regrettable testament to misplaced sentiments and Northern racial prejudices. However, as James McPherson revealed in his essays on "Why They Fought" about the letters and correspondence of our soldiers, we know that attitudes shifted throughout the second half of the conflict and what was initially received with widespread resentment, was gradually accepted as the enlisted men came to believe in what they were fighting for and see for themselves the necessity of it.

It is not surprising that the same can not be said of the men who fought in the Confederacy. The South widely rejoiced when they received word of the Emancipation Proclamation, many boasted that news of it had increased their recruits by a hundred thousand or more and was sure to yield a much needed sense of urgency to their cause. And in the final months of the war, the debate over whether to recruit and free black men who were willing to fight for the South led to a fatal hemorrhaging of desertions among their already beleaguered and decimated Army.

Hundreds of thousands of black men fought for the North and earned through their blood and bravery the respect of their white Compatriots, while bringing to fruition the most deep-seated fears and trepidations of the Southerners who they fought against. On January 1st, Lincoln proclaimed the Slaves of the Confederate States to be free at last; On February 22nd Jefferson Davis declared that all free black men residing within the Southern States would be enslaved once more (and returned to their "natural state")... The North may not have been sin-less or fully enlightened by todays standard, but let's not mince words about the fact that the contrast between North and South was nonetheless unmistakable and clear, an enlightened and learned person will not mistake one for the other, the difference is distinct, one can not blur such illustrations of black and white into some similar shade of gray.
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Anonymous
Fri Mar 27 2009, 01:51PM
Guest
Thanks for the post, but you are repeating what’s been said over and over again ad infinitum ad nausea, with little or no historical content. Hundreds of thousands of Irish and German men among other immigrants were greeted at their embarkation ports in the USA with a rifle and a uniform, now were they fighting to "save the union"?...me thinks not. You also failed to mention the thousands of blacks both slaves and free men who fought for the Confederacy. Just thought I would remind you. oh and you also left out the fact that by 1862 when the CSA was actually wining the war, many a Yankee said, let them have their independence, after all it was Constitutional. Meanwhile the war machine in the North was being was being waged by poor immigrants in sweat shops in conditions that many a true historian has written about worse than those conditions of slaves in both the North and the South.
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red house
Fri Mar 27 2009, 05:41PM
Registered Member #89
Joined: Wed Feb 18 2009, 11:07PM
Posts: 40
I consider myself somewhat well versed concerning matters of our history, but I am not aware that there were thousands of slaves who actually 'fought' on the side of the South. It's not the first time I have heard of claims to this effect, however I have only read of slaves "serving" among the Confederate ranks as cooks and orderlies (which is not to imply that they ever had a choice). The notion that thousands of blacks would fight on the side that fought to preserve and perpetuate the institution that deprived them of their freedom, is, well... laughable, if not hilarious. In fact I believe Jefferson Davis, General Lee and others shared my sentiments exactly when Maj.-Gen Patrick Cleburne first proposed doing such a thing a year before the war's end. Come on, please let's be serious.

[ Edited Fri Mar 27 2009, 05:47PM ]
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Anonymous
Sat Mar 28 2009, 12:03PM
Guest
Dear Sir you said " I consider myself somewhat well versed concerning matters of our history" know you made me chuckle a little bit. Black Confederates why haven't we heard more about them? National Park Service Chief Historian, Ed Bearrs, stated, "I don't want to call it a conspiracy to ignore the role of Blacks both above and below the Mason-Dixon line, but it was definitely a tendency that began around 1910" Historian, Erwin L. Jordan, Jr., calls it a "cover-up" which started back in 1865. He writes, "During my research, I came across instances where Black men stated they were soldiers, but you can plainly see where 'soldier' is crossed out and 'body servant' inserted, or 'teamster' on pension applications." Another black historian, Roland Young, says he is not surprised that blacks fought. He explains that "some, if not most, Black southerners would support their country" and that by doing so they were "demonstrating it's possible to hate the system of slavery and love one's country." This is the very same reaction that most African Americans showed during the American Revolution, where they fought for the colonies, even though the British offered them freedom if they fought for them. Now why do you suppose they chose to fight rather than obtain their freedom? they chose something higher, their Nation, over their own freedom.
It has been estimated that over 85,000 Southern blacks were in the Confederate ranks. Over 20,000 of these, "saw the elephant" also known as meeting the enemy in combat. These Black Confederates included both slave and free. The Confederate Congress did not approve blacks to be officially enlisted as soldiers (except as musicians), until late in the war. But in the ranks it was a different story. Many Confederate officers did not obey the mandates of politicians, they frequently enlisted blacks with the simple criteria, "Will you fight?" Historian Ervin Jordan, explains that "biracial units" were frequently organized "by local Confederate and State militia Commanders in response to immediate threats in the form of Union raids". Dr. Leonard Haynes, an African-American professor at Southern University, stated, "When you eliminate the black Confederate soldier, you've eliminated the history of the South." Your answer reminds me of our current President, you never answer the question asked. Now what say ye about those tens of thousands of immigrants that fought...were they fighting to save the Union? real historians know the deal there, they were either forced to fight or fought for food.
Now Sir I suggest you downgrade yourself to lets say amateur , come back when you are "well versed"
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8milereb
Sat Mar 28 2009, 02:36PM

Registered Member #2
Joined: Thu Jul 19 2007, 11:39AM
Posts: 1030
As the war came to an end, the Confederacy took progressive measures to build back up its army. The creation of the Confederate States Colored Troops, copied after the segregated northern colored troops, came too late to be successful. Had the Confederacy been successful, it would have created the world's largest armies (at the time) consisting of black soldiers,even larger than that of the North. This would have given the future of the Confederacy a vastly different appearance than what modern day racist or anti-Confederate liberals conjecture. Not only did Jefferson Davis envision black Confederate veterans receiving bounty lands for their service, there would have been no future for slavery after the goal of 300,000 armed black CSA veterans came home after the war.
1. The "Richmond Howitzers" were partially manned by black militiamen. They saw action at 1st Manassas (or 1st Battle of Bull Run) where they operated battery no. 2. In addition two black "regiments", one free and one slave, participated in the battle on behalf of the South. "Many colored people were killed in the action", recorded John Parker, a former slave.
2. At least one Black Confederate was a non-commissioned officer. James Washington, Co. D 35th Texas Cavalry, Confederate States Army, became it's 3rd Sergeant. Higher ranking black commissioned officers served in militia units, but this was on the State militia level (Louisiana)and not in the regular C.S. Army.
3. Free black musicians, cooks, soldiers and teamsters earned the same pay as white confederate privates. This was not the case in the Union army where blacks did not receive equal pay. At the Confederate Buffalo Forge in Rockbridge County, Virginia, skilled black workers "earned on average three times the wages of white Confederate soldiers and more than most Confederate army officers ($350- $600 a year).
4. Dr. Lewis Steiner, Chief Inspector of the United States Sanitary Commission while observing Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson's occupation of Frederick, Maryland, in 1862: "Over 3,000 Negroes must be included in this number [Confederate troops]. These were clad in all kinds of uniforms, not only in cast-off or captured United States uniforms, but in coats with Southern buttons, State buttons, etc. These were shabby, but not shabbier or seedier than those worn by white men in the rebel ranks. Most of the Negroes had arms, rifles, muskets, sabers, bowie-knives, dirks, etc.....and were manifestly an integral portion of the Southern Confederate Army."
5. Frederick Douglas reported, "There are at the present moment many Colored men in the Confederate Army doing duty not only as cooks, servants and laborers, but real soldiers, having musket on their shoulders, and bullets in their pockets, ready to shoot down any loyal troops and do all that soldiers may do to destroy the Federal government and build up that of the rebels."
6. Black and white militiamen returned heavy fire on Union troops at the Battle of Griswoldsville (near Macon, GA). Approximately 600 boys and elderly men were killed in this skirmish.
7. In 1864, President Jefferson Davis approved a plan that proposed the emancipation of slaves, in return for the official recognition of the Confederacy by Britain and France. France showed interest but Britain refused.
8. The Jackson Battalion included two companies of black soldiers. They saw combat at Petersburg under Col. Shipp. "My men acted with utmost promptness and goodwill...Allow me to state sir that they behaved in an extraordinary acceptable manner."
9. Recently the National Park Service, with a recent discovery, recognized that blacks were asked to help defend the city of Petersburg, Virginia and were offered their freedom if they did so. Regardless of their official classification, black Americans performed support functions that in today's army many would be classified as official military service. The successes of white Confederate troops in battle, could only have been achieved with the support these loyal black Southerners.
10. Confederate General John B. Gordon (Army of Northern Virginia) reported that all of his troops were in favor of Colored troops and that it's adoption would have "greatly encouraged the army". Gen. Lee was anxious to receive regiments of black soldiers. The Richmond Sentinel reported on 24 Mar 1864, "None will deny that our servants are more worthy of respect than the motley hordes which come against us." "Bad faith [to black Confederates] must be avoided as an indelible dishonor."
11. In March 1865, Judah P. Benjamin, Confederate Secretary Of State, promised freedom for blacks who served from the State of Virginia. Authority for this was finally received from the State of Virginia and on April 1st 1865, $100 bounties were offered to black soldiers. Benjamin exclaimed, "Let us say to every Negro who wants to go into the ranks, go and fight, and you are free Fight for your masters and you shall have your freedom." Confederate Officers were ordered to treat them humanely and protect them from "injustice and oppression".
12. A quota was set for 300,000 black soldiers for the Confederate States Colored Troops. 83% of Richmond's male slave population volunteered for duty. A special ball was held in Richmond to raise money for uniforms for these men. Before Richmond fell, black Confederates in gray uniforms drilled in the streets. Due to the war ending, it is believed only companies or squads of these troops ever saw any action. Many more black soldiers fought for the North, but that difference was simply a difference because the North instituted this progressive policy more sooner than the more conservative South. Black soldiers from both sides received discrimination from whites who opposed the concept .
13. Union General U.S. Grant in Feb 1865, ordered the capture of "all the Negro men before the enemy can put them in their ranks." Frederick Douglass warned Lincoln that unless slaves were guaranteed freedom (those in Union controlled areas were still slaves) and land bounties, "they would take up arms for the rebels".
14. On April 4, 1865 (Amelia County, VA), a Confederate supply train was exclusively manned and guarded by black Infantry. When attacked by Federal Cavalry, they stood their ground and fought off the charge, but on the second charge they were overwhelmed. These soldiers are believed to be from "Major Turner's" Confederate command.
15. A Black Confederate, George _____, when captured by Federals was bribed to desert to the other side. He defiantly spoke, "Sir, you want me to desert, and I ain't no deserter. Down South, deserters disgrace their families and I am never going to do that."
16. Former slave, Horace King, accumulated great wealth as a contractor to the Confederate Navy. He was also an expert engineer and became known as the "Bridge builder of the Confederacy." One of his bridges was burned in a Yankee raid. His home was pillaged by Union troops, as his wife pleaded for mercy.
17. As of Feb. 1865 1,150 black seamen served in the Confederate Navy. One of these was among the last Confederates to surrender, aboard the CSS Shenandoah, six months after the war ended. This surrender took place in England.
18. Nearly 180,000 Black Southerners, from Virginia alone, provided logistical support for the Confederate military. Many were highly skilled workers. These included a wide range of jobs: nurses, military engineers, teamsters, ordnance department workers, brakemen, firemen, harness makers, blacksmiths, wagonmakers, boatmen, mechanics, wheelwrights, etc. In the 1920'S Confederate pensions were finally allowed to some of those workers that were still living. Many thousands more served in other Confederate States.
19. During the early 1900's, many members of the United Confederate Veterans (UCV) advocated awarding former slaves rural acreage and a home. There was hope that justice could be given those slaves that were once promised "forty acres and a mule" but never received any. In the 1913 Confederate Veteran magazine published by the UCV, it was printed that this plan "If not Democratic, it is [the] Confederate" thing to do. There was much gratitude toward former slaves, which "thousands were loyal, to the last degree", now living with total poverty of the big cities. Unfortunately, their proposal fell on deaf ears on Capitol Hill.
20. During the 50th Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg in 1913, arrangements were made for a joint reunion of Union and Confederate veterans. The commission in charge of the event made sure they had enough accommodations for the black Union veterans, but were completely surprised when unexpected black Confederates arrived. The white Confederates immediately welcomed their old comrades, gave them one of their tents, and "saw to their every need". Nearly every Confederate reunion including those blacks that served with them, wearing the gray.
21. The first military monument in the US Capitol that honors an African-American soldier is the Confederate monument at Arlington National cemetery. The monument was designed 1914 by Moses Ezekiel, a Jewish Confederate. Who wanted to correctly portray the "racial makeup" in the Confederate Army. A black Confederate soldier is depicted marching in step with white Confederate soldiers. Also shown is one "white soldier giving his child to a black woman for protection".- source: Edward Smith, African American professor at the American University, Washington DC.
22. Black Confederate heritage is beginning to receive the attention it deserves. For instance, Terri Williams, a black journalist for the Suffolk "Virginia Pilot" newspaper, writes: "I've had to re-examine my feelings toward the [Confederate] flag started when I read a newspaper article about an elderly black man whose ancestor worked with the Confederate forces. The man spoke with pride about his family member's contribution to the cause, was photographed with the [Confederate] flag draped over his lap that's why I now have no definite stand on just what the flag symbolizes, because it no longer is their history, or my history, but our history."
Resources:
Charles Kelly Barrow, et.al. Forgotten Confederates: An Anthology About Black Southerners (1995). Currently the best book on the subject.
Ervin L. Jordan, Jr. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia (1995). Well researched and very good source of information on Black Confederates, but has a strong Union bias.
Richard Rollins. Black Southerners in Gray (1994). Excellent source.
Dr. Edward Smith and Nelson Winbush, "Black Southern Heritage". An excellent educational video. Mr. Winbush is a descendent of a Black Confederate and a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV).
This fact page is not an all inclusive list of Black Confederates, only a small sampling of accounts. For general historical information on Black Confederates, contact Dr. Edward Smith, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20016; Dean of American Studies. Dr. Smith is a black professor dedicated to clarifying the historical role of African Americans

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Lady Val
Sat Mar 28 2009, 03:14PM
Registered Member #75
Joined: Sat Nov 01 2008, 11:22AM
Posts: 475
Forgive me for asking, but the post that I made at the beginning has nothing whatsoever to do with blacks fighting for either side. Rather, it has to do with Union treatment of "contraband" and freedmen during and after the war - and it isn't anywhere near a complete revelation of the treatment of blacks by their "liberators".

That was what I wanted brought to the fore in light of the contention - on the anniversary of the birth of the "Great Emancipator" (yeah) - that somehow the Union was noble, egalitarian and tolerant while the evil Southerners were bigoted, hateful and just plain mean. One of the things that has always bothered me most about the entire business is the incredible self-righteousness of the Yankees and their claim to, as Lincoln put it in one speech "right makes might". In fact, it was quite the other way round since the entire war was illegal, unconstitutional, unChristian and just plain wrong and wicked. If, in fact, right did make might, the South would have won the war in six months.

The Union used its "moral righteousness" as an excuse to rape, murder, pillage and destroy but the fact is, when it came time for Yankees to actually deal with the people they supposedly made war to free from oppression, they were even more oppressive and unjust than those against whom they fought - and that is the point that I wished to make with my post. Obviously, somewhere along the way, the issue got sidetracked into the issue of black Confederate soldiers.
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8milereb
Sun Mar 29 2009, 12:34PM

Registered Member #2
Joined: Thu Jul 19 2007, 11:39AM
Posts: 1030
Lady Val, I assume (and I know how you spell it) you are referring to Red House and not me, and if not then why do you even care? It all has to do with revised history of Lincolns War and that’s what we are here to correct. I see there is no love lost between you and Lincoln and that’s cool. However I was merely responding to this and other posts that morphed from your previous dated discussion. If you want clarity then I suggest you write the Editorial section of your home time New York Times:-) …… a little Yankee sarcasm back at ya!

[ Edited Sun Mar 29 2009, 01:34PM ]
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Lady Val
Sun Mar 29 2009, 02:55PM
Registered Member #75
Joined: Sat Nov 01 2008, 11:22AM
Posts: 475
'Twas not being sarcastic - and I don't even allow the New York Slimes in the house! - but merely pointing out that we'd gotten "off point". I do believe that the forum has a thread on Confederate soldiers who were black and whomever got "off point" should have been directed to that thread for the purpose of developing the topic. It deserves to be developed given how poorly it is presented and understood.

While this topic does in fact deal with race and with the interaction between the two races, more than anything, I wished to show up the hypocrisy of those who "tar" the South in general and the Confederacy in particular with bigoted behavior towards blacks. If you think about it, though critics of Confederate symbols talk about "treason", it always comes back to the racial issue. Until people are educated to the fact that the South was more humane in its dealings with the Negro until Reconstruction, we're not going to change many minds. I know I had to do a great deal of research before a lot of my old notions of "factual history" had to be abandoned in order to keep any kind of objectivity.

Mr. Theurson has just come out with another great peace on a Southern planter's army of slaves, his treatment of them and their attempt to rejoin his service after the war. It's entitled, "Mr. Cameron's Slaves."
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Anonymous
Sun Mar 29 2009, 03:08PM
Guest
Speaking of Southern Planters, I suggest you read Plain Folk of the Old South, (Frank L Owsley) it gives us all a better interpretation of "the Planter Class, Herders, and the thriving non planter"Middleclass" of the South that historians fail to mention.
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8milereb
Sun Mar 29 2009, 03:54PM

Registered Member #2
Joined: Thu Jul 19 2007, 11:39AM
Posts: 1030
Lady, no harm no foul...nuttin wrong with a healthy discussion and yes even a disagreement now and then! keep up the great work!
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