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Southern Heritage Advancement Preservation and Education :: Forums :: General :: Articles and Article Archive
 
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Lincoln Takes Command -- How Lincoln Got The War He Wanted--John Shipley Tilley
Moderators: gpthelastrebel, 8milereb, Patrick
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gpthelastrebel
Thu Sep 05 2013, 12:11PM

Registered Member #1
Joined: Tue Jul 17 2007, 10:46AM
Posts: 3657
I am going to use the entire "Background" section of this book which will be several pages. The reason for this is i beliveve this section contains very important information that describes how issues in the country lead up to secession, not war. My comments will be in red. Page numbers ommited since more than one page will be typed per post. Because of difference in this website and Micro Word, sources are noted by numbers (0) Quotes are in bold black.

GP


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Lincoln Takes Command
Forward by Avery Craven, University of Chicago, 1940
From that day until our own, writers of history have been inclined to accept the Northern explanation, produced as part of the usual effort to throw all responsibility upon the enemy, that Lincoln merely met his constitutional obligations in a magnanimous way and impatient Southerners were responsible for all of the unfortunate things which happened. Victory enabled the victor to write the orthodox version of history and “patriotism” gave that version unfailing support. Few, in the years since 1865, have arisen to question its soundness.

*********************************************************


The Background (Part 1)

Almost from the beginning of the Republic, partisanship has kept tireless vigil over the preservation of proper equilibrium between the sections With the North and the South holding practically equal power there was even at the time of ratification of the Constitution a dread of the coming influence of the Southwest. Upon the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, New England leaders were ready to sound the first note of secession in a letter to Senator Pickering, of Massachusetts; George Cabot explained their threat of withdrawal: “The influence of our part of the Union must be diminished by the acquisition of more weight at the other extremity.” With the idea of guaranteeing the balance, the nation pursued a policy of admitting new states in pairs, one Northern the other with Southern leaning: thus Indiana (1816) came in with Mississippi (1817); Illinois (18180 came with Alabama (1819); Maine 1820 with Missouri (1821).

By 1840 there was observable a substantial shifting of influence. The population of the north was increasing rapidly, and to the South this carried its own warning. The north already had a substantial majority in the National Congress. With the hope of securing additional representation, the South proceeded to launch a campaign o for the admission of Texas. This move aroused such opposition as again to imperil the Union; John Quincy Adams and twelve other members of Congress protest, declaring that the annexation of Texas would mean dissolution of the union. Publication of census figures of 1850 was the handwriting on the wall for those who realized with dismay the disturbance of the equipoise of sectional influence. Up to this time, despite the disparity in numbers, the political genius of the Southerners had enabled them to more than hold their own. Now their hold was slipping. It so happened that their votes had blocked ambitious schemes of Eastern Industrialist, among others one was to construct at public expense transcontinental railways between North and West, which would open up vast granaries in competition with the agricultural Southern region.

If Southern ascendency in the national councils could be unhorsed, if the balance of power could be gained once and for all, there would be an end of the opposition which had frustrated Northern dreams of commercial expansion. Waging a desperate political battle, the industrialist was in a mood to welcome reinforcements from whatever quarter. It came from a strange source. There entered the lists a small but desperately sincere, fanatically minded, highly vocal group known as Abolitionist, latter-day crusaders obsessed with hatred of slavery, abhorrence of slave-owners. Making common cause with the newly born Republican Party, they did their part in battering down the walls of Southern supremacy. The spearhead of their attack was agitation for the liberation and enfranchisement of several million slaves, many of them only a generation removed from voodooism and savagery. They must have known the story of the French colony on the neighboring island of Santo Domingo, where, only a few decades before. Four hundred thousand blacks had celebrated their emancipation by the massacre of by far the greater part of the forty thousand white populations. As to the consequences of their program for the Southern states, the abolitionist appeared more than indifferent.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln in the fall of 1860, the final blow fell. The returns rocked the South like an earthquake. Following a campaign which had shunted aside national issues, in an election shot through and through with sectional animosity, the Southerners had felt the sting of defeat. Most disheartening of all, Lincoln had received only 1,866,452 popular votes out of a total of 4,690,193.(1) All eighteen states in his column lay north of the Mason-Dixon Line. (2) Fifteen of the thirty-three states gave him no electoral votes. In ten states not a ballot bore his name. (3) The planter class reeled under the blow. It was under no illusion as to what all this meant. Its era of influence was of the past, its political sun was going into total eclipse. The Southerners knew only two well that, if they submitted to bitterly partisan rule, the future held in store for them economic, political, and social bankruptcy. So far as they could see, there was only one way out. Thirteen years before a congressman from the west had risen in the house to blaze the trail with this announcement: “Any people, anywhere, being inclined and having the power, have the right to rise up and shake off the existing government and form a new one that suits them better, This is a most valuable, a most sacred right, a right which we hope and believe is to liberate the world. (4)

1. Woodrow Wilson, Division and Reunion, 1829-1889 (new York and London, 1912), p. 207
2. A. H. Stephens, A Comprehensive and Poplar History of the United States (Richmond, 1882) p. 559
3. Ida. M. Tarbell, The Life of Abraham Lincoln ( 4 vols., new York 1917) 1, 386
4. Goldwin Smith, The united States: an outline of Political History, 1492-1871 (new York and London, 1893) p. 248

*********************************************************

Here we have a good outline of what lead up to secession. Some of these grievances are listed in the Declaration on Causes of Secession (Justin Sanders from the Official Records, Ser IV, vol 1, pp. 81-85.). Neo-Yankees like to point to these documents as proof positive that slavery was the cause of the war. That is simply not true.

It should also be noted these same neo-Yankees try to paint the our Confederate ancestors as traitors. In the same breath they will tell you secession is illegal, but Northern states were threating the the same act, yet this action seems to be totally ignored.


[ Edited Mon Oct 07 2013, 09:24AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Fri Sep 20 2013, 11:11AM

Registered Member #1
Joined: Tue Jul 17 2007, 10:46AM
Posts: 3657
Part 2 --The Background

The Speaker was Abraham Lincoln. Strongly committed to the theory of state sovereignty, naturally concurring in the Lincoln view, the Southerners set about to chart their course. They would leave the union, the union to the upbuilding of which their fathers had contributed such conspicuous leadership, but now a Union which, as they saw it, was about to crush them. To their thinking, there was no alternative. In the near future, secession was an accomplished fact.

In the meantime, the extremists of both sections, Abolitionist and radical Republicans in the North, secession irreconcilables in the South, were hipping up a storm of passion. Calmer heads there were who pleaded with the rival factions that efforts to avert a catastrophe should not stop short of exhausting all possibilities of negotiation. Looking backward after three quarters of a century upon the horrors of a war involving expenditure of billions of dollars and the sacrifice if hundreds of thousands of the choicest youth of the country, there rises to view the well-nigh incredible revelation that militant minorities on both sides forced a conflict which the majority of the citizenship regarded as unspeakable and unnecessary. Proof of this assumes overwhelming proportions. After a critical analysis of the 1860 election returns, Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia of 1861, published in New York City the following year gave this:
“Meantime the people began to move in every Northern, Middle, and upper tier of the Southern States, in favor of the settlement off the difficulties. It was an indisputable fact, at this time that the vote cast for Mr. Douglas, numbering 1,365,976, and that cast for Mr. Bell, numbering 590, 631 and the vote for Mr. Breckinridge, in the free states, numbering 284,422, making a total of 2,241,029, was unanimously in favor of a peaceful reasonable settlement of all difficulties with any of the Southern States. The vote for Lincoln was 1, 857,610, of which at least one forth would have approved of such a peaceful settlement …… Of the vote given to Mr. Breckenridge in the slaveholding States, numbering 563,531, more than one-fourth of it desired a peaceful settlement upon such terms as would have been satisfactory to the friends of conciliation and compromise in the Northern States. Thus, the voice of the people of the country at this time was overwhelmingly in favor of conciliation, forbearance and compromise.5

Within less than two months after Lincoln’s election, the venerable Senator Crittenden arose to present to the senate of the United States his plan for safeguarding the future of the nation. Known as the Crittenden Compromise, it proposed a constitutional amendment. This was to make, among others, three provision: the establishment of the line of latitude of 36 degrees 30 minutes as a boundary, north of which slavery should be prohibited, south of which it would be permitted; government compensation of owners of rescued fugitive slaves; the denial of any power on the part of congress to hinder transportation of slaves between slaveholding localities, or abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without compensation. The senate at once appointed the committee of Thirteen, charged to harmonize, if possible, the differences between slaveholding and nonslaveholding states. In January, 1861, Crittenden urged the submission of his plan to a vote of the people Immediately Senator Douglas, of Illinois, threw the weight of his influence to the proposal with the appealing argument:
“Are we prepared in our hearts for war with our brethren and kindred? I confess I am not….I prefer compromise to war. I prefer concession to dissolution of the Union… Why not allow the people to pass upon these questions? If the people reject them, theirs will be the responsibility and no harm will have been done by the reference”(6)

Again in December, 1860, Senator Douglas said in the senate:
“I am ready to act with any party, with any individual of any party, who will come to the question with an eye single to the preservation of the country and the Union. I trust we may lay aside all party grievances, party feuds, partisan jealousies, and look to our country and not to our party, in the consequences of our actions” (7)

The reaction from the North and the West was instant and reassuring. In a speech in the senate, Senator Joseph Lane, of Oregon, voiced the view that acceptance of the Crittenden measure would “delay the movements which are now going on, that are to result ultimately in the entire dissolution of the Union”

On March 3, 1861 Senator George F. Pugh, of Ohio, said in the senate,
“The Crittenden proposition has been indorsed by almost unanimous vote of the legislature of Kentucky. It has been indorsed by the legislature of the noble old commonwealth of Virginia. It has been petitioned for by a larger number of electors of the United States than any proposition that was ever before congress. I believe in my heart, today, that it would carry an overwhelming majority of the people of my state; ay sir, and of nearly every other state in the Union.”(9)

Governor Seymour, of New York, in his message to the legislature, gave the proposal his indorsement:
“Let New York set an example in this respect; let her oppose no barrier, but let her representatives in Congress give ready support to any just and honorable settlement.”(10)
Exhibiting “the most extraordinary earnestness for the preservation of peace” assemblage of Bostonians in Faneuil hall passed a resolution of approval of the Crittenden measure.(11) In the central states there sprang up a vigorous sentiment “ for the immediate adoption of measures for the salvation of the Union and the adjustment of all questions of difference between the contending sections” (12)


5. Appleton’s American Annul Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events, for the years of 1861-1865 (W.T. Tenney, ed. New York, 1862-1866)
6. James F Rhodes, A history of the United States Told by Contemporaries (New York, 1893-1919)1861 p. 700
7. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861 p.168.
8. Ibid, page 177
9. Ibid, p. 224
10. Ibid, p. 319
11. Ibid, p. 453
12. Ibid, p. 478






[ Edited Mon Oct 07 2013, 09:29AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Mon Sep 30 2013, 01:52PM

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Joined: Tue Jul 17 2007, 10:46AM
Posts: 3657
Part 3 -- The Background


Widespread among the people of the North was the conviction that Abolitionism was about to push the nation over the brink of the precipice. In numerous localities, citizens proceeded to make life uncomfortable for antislavery agitators (13) in instances resorting to violence to harass or even break up their meetings. Decidedly disappointing to the radical element was the pacific position taken by such journals as the Albany Evening Journal, The New York Tribune, The New York World, The New York Times and the New York Herald. (14)

The attitude of outstanding patriots indicates the favor with which the North looked upon the effort to avert a break. Edward Everett contributed his support. Thurlow Weed, (15) James S. Thayer of New York,(16) Seward, soon to be Lincoln’s secretary of state(17) and president Buchanan(18) evinced a desire to cooperate in the interest of conciliation. Douglas and Crittenden went so far as to telegraph Union Stalwarts in the South of their hope that the rights of that section would be protected within the Union. (19) A large element of the Breckenridge and bell factions were fearful of the prospect of armed strife.(20) Northern Democrats hoped to hold the Southern Stain the Union.(21) Later, Greely was to express the opinion that submission of the Crittenden proposal to a vote of the nation would have resulted in its adoption “by an overwhelming majority. (22)

August Belmont, of New York, wrote Crittenden that he had yet to meet the first conservative, Union-loving man who did not approve of the senators proposition. In this letter he expressed the fear that the welfare of the country was in jeopardy as a result of the activities of “a handful of puritanical fanatics and selfish politicians.” Shortly afterward, he informed Herschel V. Johnson, a former governor of Georgia and an open anti-secessionist, that the governors of seven republican states had resolved to sponsor conciliatory legislation.(23) patriotic Republicans were even endeavoring to influence Lincoln to include in his cabinet some representatives Southern men.

Meanwhile, the voice of the people was making itself heard. Great numbers of petitions, carrying staggering totals of signatures, began to appear in Washington.(24) These urged adoption of some form of compromise.(25) Crittenden presented one from Massachusetts signed by twenty-two thousand citizens .(26)One from Philadelphia pledged the support of two thousand avowed Lincoln adherents.(27) A “monster petition” from New York expressed the interest of forty thousand friends of Crittenden’s theory.(28) Another from New York with “an immense number of signatures, without distinction of party,” bore the names of “the leading capitalist of the country , as well as the state.”(29)

The legislature of New Jersey informed the state’s representatives in Washington of its desire for the success of the Crittenden movement. In a message recommending a convention to undertake adjustment of sectional differences, Governor Olden of New Jersey had said; “We cannot believe it possible that such a convention would fail to agree on terms acceptable to a majority in all sections of the country.”(30) On January 19, 1861, giving approval to Crittenden’s theory, the general assembly of Virginia adopted a resolution urging a convention for the purpose of settling “the present unhappy controversies in which the Constitution was originally formed.(31) From the new York and Ohio State Democratic conventions came strong endorsement.(32) The border states were not without their extremists but, as events proved, their people as a whole were not favorable to the plan of secession. Obviously the Crittenden suggestion would have fared well at their hands. Speaking of the endorsements, Senator Crittenden said in the senate:
“What is the number of petitions forwarded/ I suppose if I should say that we have received petitions from not less than a quarter of a million, I should be within bounds. In addition to this, societies everywhere have been petitioning in the name of their whole body. State legislatures have memorialized, and, in fact, petitioned congress in the name of the people of their states. I do not know how many”(33)

Powerful as was the sentiment favoring reasonable adjustment, it was far from, unanimous. As the matter of course, the abolitionist saw only one side. The die-hard element in the Republican ranks stood ready to incur any risk rather than yield and inch which might be construed as a concession to slaveholders. Ohio’s senator Wade observed that half a million people to whom he had argued the republican theory of slavery had agreed with him; he gave notice that as their commissioned representative , he would stand his ground to the end.(34) In December, 1860, he declared in the senate:
Sir , I know not what others may do; but I tell you that, with the verdict of the people given in favor of the platform on which our candidates have been elected, so far as I am concerned, I would suffer anything to come before I would compromise that away(35)

Wade didn’t suffer too much; he stayed in office all during the war, never experiencing the horrors of a war he held bring on.



13. Ralph R. Fahrney, Horace Greely and the Tribune in the Civil war (Cedar Rapids, Ia., 1936), p.41
14. William E. Dodd, Jefferson Davis in “American Crisis Biographies” (Philadelphia, 1907), p. 195: Fahrney, Horace Greely and The Tribune p. 430
15. The Autobiography of Horace Greely; or Recollections of a Busy Life (New York, 1872 p. 396
16. Clark E. Carr, Stephen A. Douglas, his life, Public Service, speeches and Patriotism (Chicago, 1909, pp. 118, 120
17. Wilson, Division and Reunion p. 214
18. Moorfield Storey, Charles Sumner, in the “American Statesmen Series” (Boston and new York, 1900). P 190
19. Allen Johnson, Stephen A. Douglas, a Study in American Politics (New York, 1908), p. 448.
20 Fahrney, Horace Greely and the Tribune, p.41
21. Ibid, page 57, 59.
22. Greely Autobiography, p 397
23 Rhodes, History of the United States, III, 252
24. Stephens, A Comprehensive and popular History of the United States, p 360
25. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, p 179.
26. Storey, Charles Sumner, p. 192
27. Rhodes, History of the United States, III, 262, 263
28. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, p. 521
29. Ibid pp. 519, 520.
30. Ibid, p. 515
31. Ibid p. 178
32. Rhodes, History of the United States, III, p. 263
33. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, p. 223
34. Carr, Stephen A. Douglas, p. 111
35. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, p. 172





















[ Edited Thu Mar 10 2016, 07:47PM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Fri Oct 04 2013, 02:00PM

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Part 4-- The Background

In December, 1860 Seward himself commented that the Republican Party was more inclined to yield than were the secessionist of South Carolina. Lincoln “stood like a rock” against compromise.(36) He not only held fast to the principals to which he owed his election, but succeeded in influencing Seward and Thurlow Weed to recede from their positions.(37) Even so, Republicans and Abolitionist constituted only a minority of the electorate. It was recognition of this fact, so clearly demonstrated by the election figures, which had encouraged in the advocates of the compromise program a willingness to submit it to the popular decision.

What of the South itself? Senator Douglas said in the senate on March 3, 1861, in his answer to Senator Pugh, of Ohio “I can confirm the senators declaration that Senator Jefferson Davis himself, when on the committee of Thirteen, was ready at all times to compromise on the Crittenden proposition.(38) far from secession enthusiast, Davis regretted what appeared to him to be the necessity of the South’s withdrawal from the Union.(39) Clement C. Clay of Alabama, an intimate of Davis in the united states senate, wrote of him:
“Mr. Davis did not take an active part in planning or hastening secession. I think he only regretfully consented to it as a political necessity for the preservation of popular and state rights…. I know that some leading men, and even Mississippians, thought him too moderate and backward, and found fault with him for not taking part in secession” (40)

At the suggestion of Governor J. J. Pettus, of Mississippi, the Senators and representatives of the state held a conference at Jackson in the fall of 1860. Of their discussion of the proper attitude of their state on the issue of secession, Congressman O. R. Singleton wrote:
“The debate lasted many hours, and Mr. Davis with perhaps one other gentlemen in that conference, opposed immediate and separate state action, declaring himself opposed to secession as long as the hope of peaceful remedy remained. He did not believe we ought to precipitate the issue …….. After the conference was ended, several of its members were dissatisfied with the course of Mr. Davis, believing that he was entirely opposed to secession, and was seeking to delay action on the part of Mississippi, with the hope that it might be entirely averted.” (41)

Varina Howell Davis quotes her husband as saying: “If they will give me time, all is not lost; violence on one side and extreme measures of wrong on the other now, will dissolve the Union.” She adds, “And by telegrams, and letters to every Southern State he endeavored to postpone their action.”(42)

In the Georgia convention, a delegate made the motion to secede. Herschel V. Johnson offered a substitute; namely, that the convention should invite the commonwealths of Florida, South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi, along with ten other states which had not seceded,(45) to send representatives to a meeting in Atlanta, there to consider ways and means of arriving at a solution of their common problem. Designating the Personal Liberty acts as the core of the trouble, the substitute implied that, upon their repeal., the states would carefully reconsider the issues. Advocating adoption of the substitute, Alexander H. Stephens, who was to become vice president of the Confederate government, clearly stated his position:
“It is well known that my judgment is against Secession for existing causes. I have not lost hope of securing our rights in the Union and Under the Constitution …. I have ever believed, and do now believe, that it is to the interest of all the States to be and remain united under the Constitution of the United States, with a faithful performance by each state of all its Constitutional obligations…. I do further feel confident, if Georgia would now stand firm and unite with the Border States… in an effort to obtain redress of these grievances on the part of some of their Northern Confederates that complete success would attend their efforts… In this opinion I may be mistaken, but I feel almost as confident of it as I do of my existence”(44)

36. Charles A. and Mary R. Beard, History of the United States (New York, 1932) p. 392
37. Dodd, Jefferson Davis, p. 196
38. Appleton’s American Annual cyclopedia, 1861, p 224. See also Frank H. Alfriend, Life of Jefferson Davis (Cincinnati and Philadelphia, 1868) p. 217
39. Dodd, Jefferson Davis, pp 207, 214
40. Jefferson Davis, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Governemnt0 (2 vols. New York, 1881, I, 207.
41. Ibid
42. Varina, Howell Davis, Jefferson Davis (2 vols. New York, 1890),II, 3. See also Frank H. Alfriend, Life of Jefferson Davis, p. 223
43. A. H. Stephens, a constitutional View of Late War between the States (2vols. Philadelphia and Chicago, 1868-1870), II, 302
44. Ibid, pp. 305-306
45. Ibid., p. 315



We now see that both Davis and Stephens was agaist secession. That is a fact that is rarely ever mentioned.





[ Edited Mon Oct 07 2013, 09:32AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Mon Oct 07 2013, 11:26AM

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Part 5 --- The Background





The vote on the substitute was 133 for, 164 against.(45) Along with Davis and other Southern senators, R. M. T. Hunter of Virginia, and Robert Toombs of Georgia, later of the Confederate cabinet were openly favorable to conciliation.(46) Senator Douglas stated on the floor of the senate that Toombs was friendly to the Crittenden measure.(47) Robert E. lee, later to be proffered command of the Union armies, wrote his son: “I can anticipate no greater calamity for the country than dissolution of the Union… I am willing to sacrifice everything but honor for its preservation. I hope therefore that all constitutional measures will be exhausted before there is a resort to force.”(48) Stonewall Jackson was not advocate of secession “It is better he said, “For the south to fight for her rights in the Union, than out of it. (49) Judah p. Benjamin also later to sit in the Confederate cabinet, bestirred himself to effect a lasting reconciliation.(50)
Governor Jackson, of Missouri, was “in favor of remaining in the Union as long as there was any hope of maintaining the constitution” (51) In Texas, Governor Sam Houston declared in his message to the legislation that he “favored delay as long as possible in holding state conventions,” that he himself was opposed to calling one, and believed that the union could be preserved.”(52) In one of the last appeals made in the senate, Senator Benjamin Hill, of Georgia said: “Despite the attitude of south Carolina herself, I believe she is approachable with reason and words of kindness, and that she will listen to the voice of conciliation, if it comes in so gentle a form as could be tendered by the gentlemen on the other side of the house… I ask you to present to her, far gone as you may consider her, the olive branch. Tender it gracefully; you can afford to do it, as guardians of this great and powerful government. South Carolina may be, and in my judgment, she is extreme in her precipitancy. I have regretted it; I have remonstrated against it, and I have implored the people of my own state, notwithstanding her example, to delay their action”(53)
The southern Leaders were expressing their sentiment of an impressive element of their people. Their views confirm the statement of Woodrow Wilson that there was powerful opposition to secession in the South.(54) The very vote in the elections for delegates to the secession conventions is eloquent testimony of the prevalence of a feeling to which any effort for peaceable adjustment would have strongly appealed. In these elections, the voter had his choice between a ballot for immediate secession and one voicing his preference for delay. In the Georgia contest, 50,243 voted for withdrawal, 39,123, for delay.(55) In Louisiana, the vote was even more balanced, 20,448 favoring prompt action, 17,296 preferring delay(56)
With only slight encouragement there might easily have developed a formidable movement against any course of desperation. Strangely enough, some of the state conventions were conservative to a marked degree(57) a “strong Union sentiment” appeared in the Alabama convention, and a refusal to submit the secession ordinance to popular vote on the critical situation. (58) Of the general convention held I Montgomery, Alexander H. Stephens remarked that it was the ablest and most conservative body with which he had ever been associated.(59) On January 28, 1861, the Republican Whig expressed confidence that the Crittenden Compromise plan would receive the approval of the unprecedented majority of the voters both North and South.(60) As long before as November, 1860, even under excitement incident to the national election, there had appeared in the Savannah (Georgia) Republican an article which not only strongly urged a national convention but ventured optimism as to the result of the deliberations:
“Such a body, composed of the wise and prudent men of the country, we feel sure, could agree upon a plan that would protect all interests, quite all heartburning, give peace to the nation and place us once more on the highway of a glorious career.
“We would have it assemble the 22d of February- the birthday of Washington- and in Independence Hall in Philadelphia, with the hope that the men selected as saviors of the country in 1860, may catch some of the patriotic fire that animated the breasts of the noble founders of the Republic”(61)
Despite the considered judgment of as able historian as Rhodes that the Crittenden proposal would have received a great majority of the votes of the American people, the senate saw fit to kill the measure. Even with such a setback, Virginia was unwilling to admit defeat. Its general assembly sent out a call to every state of the Union. The announced object was that in a convention to be held in February fourth in the city of Washington, they should undertake once again “to adjust the present unhappy controversies.” Concurrently with the issuance of the invitation, the state let it be known that its own people would accept conciliation. It placed at the head of the Virginia delegation John Tyler, former president of the United States.(62) When the chairman called the convention to order, delegates were present from twenty-one commonwealths. In the opening address ex-President Tyler said:
Gentlemen, the eyes of the whole country are turned to this assembly in the expectation and hope…. I trust that you may prove yourselves worthy of the occasion … Your patriotism will surmount the difficulties, however great, if you accomplish one triumph in advance, and that is a triumph over party. And what is one’s party when compared to the task of rescuing n one’s country from danger? Do that, and one long, loud shout of joy and gladness will resound through the land”(63)

Knowing full well that in all likelihood this was the final peace move, the members seriously debated the issues the result was a recommendation that congress should submit a constitutional, with its chief item the regulation of slavery in the territories. In a vote taken by states, the resolution had a majority of only one state vote. This foredoomed it to death. When Crittenden presented it to the senate, only seven members voted aye.

46. Idem, A … A History of the United States, p. 560
47. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, p. 224
48. Henry A. White, Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy (New York), 1897, p.98
49. G.F.R. Henderson, Stonewall Jackson and The American Civil War, (2 vols. New York, 1898, I, 119
50. Allen Johnson, Stephen A. Douglas, p. 453
51. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861. P. 477
52. Ibid, p. 688
53. Ibid, p. 212
54. Wilson, Division and Reunion, p. 215
55. Pleasant A. Stovall, Robert Toombs, Statesman, Speaker, Soldier, Sage (New York, c. 1892) p. 209
56. Rhodes, History of the United States, III, p.273
57. Dodd, Jefferson Davis, p. 215
58. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, pp. 9, 10
59. Dodd, Jefferson Davis, pp. 216, 217
60. Rhodes, History of the United States, III, p. 263
61. Copied to the Greenville (Alabama) Southern Messenger, November 21, 1860
62. Stephens, A Comprehensive and Popular history of the United States, p, 589
63. Appleton’s American Annual Cyclopedia, 1861, p. 564
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gpthelastrebel
Thu Oct 24 2013, 04:23PM

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Part 6 -- The Background

This seemed the end, but even yet there was a glimmer of hope. The radicals had opposed and apparently blocked the compromise proposals, but two arresting facts assumed importance – the American people still contemplated with horror the growing threat of war; and even if all attempts at conciliation failed, the Southern leaders had reason to believe that, as matters stood in Washington, all was not hostile. The Republican Party was in the minority in both house and senate. Even in the event they could impose their will upon the majority and force their measures through, any oppressive legislation would have another hurdle to take. There was the Supreme Court of the United States, with the last word. Just three years before, that tribunal had handed down the Dred Scott decision which had not only infuriated Republicans and Abolitionists but now stood as a formidable legal precedent. More than this, the personnel of the court of ultimate authority consisted of three Democrats from the free states, four Democrats from the slave states, and one Republican. There was little prospect of hostile action from that quarter.

All in all, here was the perfect setting for a scene which, successfully staged, would have immortalized the cast. Desperate as was the situation, the door was not yet completely closed. That there remained the faint possibility of finding a way out constituted a clarion call to patriotism. The call was for a man of giant caliber, a leader of super-statesmanlike proportions, a patriot with character to subordinate personal ambition to the common good, hardihood even to defy political devotees if such a course gave promise of saving the nation. Furthermore, the need was for a leader so strategically placed as instantly to command a national hearing.

There was one man and only one to play the dramatic role. His star was in its ascendant. Only lately the voice of the people had accorded him leadership. He was the possessor of a unique personality which equipped him powerfully to appeal to the lowest as well as the highest stratum of the population. The political idol of the Republicans and abolitionist, he was about to be cast in an incomparably greater part, that of guardian of the welfare of all the people all the United States. What if this man raised his hand in a gesture of friendliness toward his fellow citizens of the Southern States had openly sent Jefferson Davis some such message as this: Upon you and me fate has imposed a most solemn responsibility. We of the North and you of the South must be broad- minded enough to iron out our differences, whatever the cost. We will make concessions; we shall expect the South to meet us half way. Upon every patriot the crisis imposes the obligation to keep reason enthroned in our national life. As one soon to become executive head of the nation, and so charged to serve all sections impartially, I call upon you to join with me in arranging a conference to be participated in by every state. It is my earnests request that each delegate shall come with one and only one instruction, and that this shall be, “There is to be no war.”

Such a call, from such a source, could hardly have failed to weld into one harmonious whole the various influences which had made known their undying opposition to war. It would have made strong appeal to the people of the South. If this man could have risen above sectionalism as to throw the great weight of his position to cause of peace, their impulse might have been irresistible to demonstrate that they were capable of equal magnanimity and patriotism. Many thought then, and many think now, that even the remotest possibility of healing existing wounds was sufficient to justify heroic measure to quite the warmongers, at least long enough to provide the opportunity for a last endeavor to restore sanity and good will. That such measures were not taken is one of the tragedies of our national history.

Thus war came. The procedure which brought it about, the steps which led to the indispensable “incident” of Sumter must ever be great interest to the student of the period.

Four years later the guns were silent, the conflict over. Laying aside the sword with which they had led their armies to victory, the conquerors took up the pen to write the story for coming generations. The flush of success is not conducive to judicial bearing and it is perhaps only natural that their narratives should lack merit of impartiality. The God-with- us delusion, war’s almost unfailing mental reaction, laid its impress upon the story. Running true to ancient form, the late combatants set out to convince the world that they were altogether in the right, their adversaries wholly in the wrong. As usual they ended by hypnotizing themselves into an assumption of their own freedom from fault. In this instance, as always, time and time again alone can readjust the balances, restore capacity to see sanely and whole, make possible dispassionate review.

It is a far cry back to the booming of the guns of 1861. Happily, with the slipping by of decade after decade, animosities have cooled. Writers from all sections are extolling the courage of both armies and, more and more, there is recognition of worthy motives on the part of each faction. This is as it should be. What the years have accomplished is commendable but, even yet, this has fallen short of the reestablished of sincerely cordial relations. Such achievement involves going beyond mere sentimental acquiescence in letting bygones be bygones. If there is necessary to face facts with frankness, to locate responsibility where responsibility belongs, during the long interval since the war of the sixties, the undisputed facts of that eventful period should have become generally known. That this is not the case is remarkable. It would be difficult to conceive of a more striking historical hiatus then the omission, from presumably authoritative accounts, of material facts and circumstances which immediately preceded and proximately caused the clash of arms at Charleston. These many years the South has stood before the bar under indictment for recklessly firing on the flag. Yet there is reason to question the justice of this widely accepted belief. A mass of evidence seems to point in a different direction. It may be the time is ripe for reexamination of this material and the acceptance of a more sound and just understanding.

I wish this were true. I see more and more attacks on the South and the Confederacy than ever. These attacks are insulting, lacking in facts, hateful, bigoted and agenda driven to do nothing more than to place blame of the Confederacy. Such attacks happen on a daily basis without being provoked in any manner. It is unbelievable that a bunch of Yankees hate the South to the extent in which these folks do, what is even more unbelievable is the descendants of these Confederate soldiers do not have the knowledge or the backbone to meet these attacks headon with factual arguments.

[ Edited Thu Oct 24 2013, 04:36PM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Fri Nov 01 2013, 01:37PM

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Part 7-- The Background

As illustrative of accounts of events, just preceding the Confederate assault on Sumter, two excerpts from school texts will suffice. The first appears in a history which many have regarded as carrying great weight:
“To hold Fort Sumter in the face of the gathering opposition to the federal government was plainly impossible. The administration, however, determined to supply the garrison with provisions and notified the governor of South Carolina of its intention. On April 12 the Southern guns opened on the fort, which surrendered April 14. Not a man had been injured, but the little garrison had been overcome by hunger and hardships. Great was the rejoicing at Charleston; at last the flag of the United States had been “humbled before the glorious little state of South Carolina” said the governor of the state.

“The next day, April 15, 1861, President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for seventy five thousand volunteers”(64)

A hungry little garrison, determination on the part of the government to send provisions, notification to the governor of South Carolina, then the firing on the flag. There are, on the other hand, original sources which appear to challenge, the accuracy, even the fairness of the quoted narrative. From reliable witnesses there is testimony that at the very moment Governor Pickens received notice of the intention to “supply the garrison with provisions,” a formidable naval squadron, carrying stores ammunition, and troops, was headed for Charleston. Trustworthy information is available that, at the same time, the head of the department of state in Washington was repeatedly assuring a Confederate peace commission that Fort Sumter was to evacuated.

Another school history, one from which multitudes have gained what they accept as accurate information, says that Anderson sent to the president an urgent request for “provisions”; that his command of eighty-five men faced seven thousand Confederates; that Lincoln set about to send the needed supplies; that “ as soon as Jefferson Davis heard of it” he gave orders which brought5 on the attack on Sumter.(65) There is no intimation of any other issue, no suggestion, for example, of reluctance on the part of the Confederates to fire on the fort, no disclosure of what the supplies were, no references to the unique method of conveying them to Charleston. (66)

The material for the revaluation has long been at hand in the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies and navies. This monumental publication brings to view the war-period reports, orders, telegrams and letters of army and navy officers, as well as of officials of the civil governments. Available in printed form since the year 1890, their value has not, it appears, impressed many who have undertaken to present the issues of the libraries, the sheer bulk of these records has guaranteed immunity from the curiosity of the average reader. The large number and forbidding size of the volumes, packed with ill-assorted, cumbersomely arranged, dry-as dust routine communiques, have repelled all except the research student fortified with time, energy, and patience. The serious investigator who digs his way through these tomes unearths a mine of historical data; from the saying and writings of those who took part in the events, astonishing truths shine forth. Inescapable is the inference that ignoring relevant testimony has brought distortion of the picture.

Supplementing the official records are firsthand accounts by eyewitnesses of various scenes of the great crisis. One of these is the Diary of Gideon Welles, secretary of the navy in Lincoln’s cabinet. Intimately associated with Lincoln, occupying the vantage ground of membership in the official family, he was one of the fewer than a dozen men who enjoyed the privilege of observing the innermost working of the administration. He wrote what he saw, what he heard, and precisely what he thought of what he had seen and heard. To say nothing of what he thought of those whom he had watched and to whom he had listened. Another similarly situated onlooker, also a member of the cabinet and writer of a diary, was Edward Bates. A third was Samuel W. Crawford who, during the crucial days at Fort Sumter, was assistant surgeon of the garrison and a member of the staff of its commander, Major Robert Anderson. Dr. Crawford not only observed closely developments within the fort, but seized the opportunity to visit and know the people of Charleston, to attend the meetings of the secession convention, to appraise the methods, motives and character of the delegates in charge of the South Carolina side of the crisis. Later, leaving the medical branch of the service, he attained the rank of major general in the regular army. In addition, with the Genesis of the Civil war, he enriched literature with brilliantly written, notably impartial record of the occurrences of the period.

The scope of this study is to be limited to a consideration of the facts and circumstances immediately preceding the secession of South Carolina and leading to the outbreak at Sumter.

Peace advocates had learned they were battling the fates; extremist propaganda had spread a prairie fire of feeling which had got beyond control. The breaking point came when the controversy reached as impasse over the presence of the Union garrison in the forts located in the South. In particular, Florida and South Carolina vied Federal occupation of fortifications at Pensacola and Charleston as an assertion within their boundaries of the authority of a government whose control they had repudiated. They protested vigorously, but their protests were unavailing. The Washington government denied their right to secede, contended they were still territory of the United States, and rejected as unthinkable the suggestion of withdrawal of the garrisons, inasmuch as such action might be construed as tantamount to voluntary surrender of sovereignty. To Union officials, therefor, retention in their respective posts of the Charleston and Pensacola commands was more than a precautionary measure; it was a symbol of continued Federal control. Here was an issue which defied adjustment. The storm of discussion continued to rage and passion steadily rose until Fort Pickens and fort Sumter developed into danger spots.

Conditions became intolerable. Presently, under the conviction that nothing short of heroic treatment would save the situation, Washington acted. Assembling ships of war troops and supplies, the government reinforced Fort Pickens. Upon the arrival off Charleston of a similar expedition with orders to relieve the Sumter garrison, the confederates proceeded to bombard the fortress. Thus it came about theta the early activities of one of the most serious conflicts of modern times centered largely around two fortifications.

(End of Background)64. Edward Channing, A students History of the United States (New York, 1902) p. 510, Italics supplied.
65. David H. Montgomery, Leading Facts of American History (Boston, 1891), p. 281
66. For other accounts of the incident see Appendix 1. (I will probably post each of these accounts. GP)




[ Edited Fri Nov 01 2013, 01:39PM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Thu Mar 10 2016, 07:53PM

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I am going to start here with the incident at Pensacola from the ORs. We already have Sumter done. This may take a while, I hope you enjoy the serierise
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gpthelastrebel
Fri Mar 18 2016, 10:23AM

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Reports 1


War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0331 (Untitled)

CHAPTER IV.

OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA.

January 6-August 31, 1861.

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

January 6, 1861.-United States Arsenal at Apalachicola seized by State troops.

7, 1861.-Fort Marion, Saint Augustine, seized by State troops.

10, 1861.-Ordinance of secession adopted.

U. S. troops transferred from Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor.

12, 1861.-Barrancas Barracks, Forts Barrancas and McRee, and the navy yard, Pensacola, seized by State troops.

14, 1861.-Fort Taylor, Key West, garrisoned by United States troops.

15, 1861.-Second demand for surrender of Fort Pickens.

18, 1861.-Fort Jefferson, Tortugas, garrisoned by United States troops.

Third demand for surrender of Fort Pickens.

24, 1861.-Re-enforcements of Fort Pickens sail from Fort Monroe, Va.

February 6, 1861.-U. S. steamer Brooklyn arrives off Pensacola with re-enforcements for Fort Pickens.

March 11, 1861.-Brigadier General Braxton Bragg, C. S. Army, assumes command of Confederate forces.

21, 1861.-Seizure of the sloop Isabella.

April 7, 1861.-Re-enforcements for Fort Pickens sail from New York.

12, 1861.-Re-enforcements from Fort Monroe, and detachment of marines,landed at Fort Pickens.

13, 1861.-Bvt. Colonel Harvey Brown, Second U. S. Artillery, assumes command of the Department of Florida.

17, 1861.-Re-enforcements from New York arrive at Fort Pickens.

August 5, 1861.-The Alvarado burned off Fernandina, by the U. S. steamer Vincennes.

REPORTS.

Numbers 1.-Ordnance Sergeant E. Powell, U. S. Army, of the seizure of U. S. Arsenal at Apalachicola.

Numbers 2.-Ordnance Sergeant Henry Douglas, U. S. Army, of the seizure of Fort Marion, Saint Augustine.

Numbers 3.-Lieutenant A. J. Slemmer, First U. S. Artillery, of the transfer of his command from Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens, and subsequent events (to February 5, 1861) in Pensacola Harbor.
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0332 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Numbers 4.-Captain John M. Brannan, First U. S. Artillery, in reference to occupation of Forty Taylor, Key West.

Numbers 5.-Bvt. Major L. G. Arnold, Second U. S. Artillery, of occupation of Fort Jefferson, Tortugas.

Numbers 6.-Captain E. Yuell, assistant commissary subsistence, C. S. Army, of the destruction of the Alvarado by the U. S. steamer Vincennes.

Numbers 1. Reports of Ordnance Sergeant E. Powell, U. S. Army, of the seizure of U. S. Arsenal at Apalachicola.

CHATTAHOOCHEE, January 6, 1861.

The arsenal has been taken possession of by the State this morning, 7 o'clock. My forces too weak to defend it. I have refused keys of magazine and armory. Answer, with instructions.

E. POWELL,

U. S. Arsenal.

Captain MAYNADIER,

Chief Ordnance Department.

U. S. ARSENAL, CHATTAHOOCHEE, FLA., January 6, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor herewith to inclose a copy of the order given to Colonel Dunn, the commander of the troops which took possession of this arsenal. I telegraphed this morning to you.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. POWELL,

Ordnance Sergeant, U. S. Army.

Captain W. MAYNADIER,

Chief of Ordnance, Washington, D. C.

[Inclosure.]

STATE OF FLORIDA, EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Tallahassee, January 5, 1861.

SIR: Reposing special confidence in your patriotism, discretion, and integrity, I hereby authorize and empower you to raise a company of picked men and proceed to the Apalachicola River and seize and possess the arsenal, arms, ammunition, stores, buildings, and other property now in the possession of the General Government, and retain the same subject to my orders. You are requested to act with secrecy and discretion. You are further authorized to call out the Seventh Regiment Florida Militia for all aid in its power to render that you may deem necessary to retain occupation of said arsenal.

M. S. PERRY.

By the governor State Florida:

T. S. VILLEPIGUE,

Secretary of State.

QUINCY, FLA., January 6, 1861.

SIR: I beg leave to state that I telegraphed this morning from Chattahoochee, and finding that I could get no answer, I came to this place and thought probably I might get an answer from you by writing from here. I informed you that the Florida troops had taken possession of the arsenal, and my force being so weak I was unable to offer any resist-

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0333 Chapter IV. REPORTS.

ance. I mailed a copy of the governor's order, &amp;c., this morning at Chattahoochee, but finding that it would not be forwarded on account of the excitement-they have taken all the public property in spite of all I could do-I refused giving up the keys, but the governor telegraphed to the commanding officer to insist on the delivery of the same, and I was compelled to give them up. I would be pleased to receive advice as to what disposition I shall make of myself and men.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. POWELL,

Ordnance Sergeant, U. S. Army.

Captain W. MAYNADIER,

Washington, D. C.

Numbers 2. Report of Ordnance Sergeant Henry Douglas, U. S. Army, of the seizure of Fort Marion, Saint Augustine.

SAINT AUGUSTINE, EAST FLORIDA, January 7, 1861.

SIR: I am obliged to perform what is to me a painful duty, viz, to report to the Chief of Ordnance that all the military stores at this place were seized this morning by the order of the governor of the State of Florida. A company of volunteer soldiers marched to the barracks and took possession of me, and demanded peaceable possession of the keys of the fort and magazine. I demanded them to show me their authority. An aide-de-camp of the governor showed me his letter of instructions authorizing him to seize the property, and directing him to use what force might be necessary.

Upon reflection I decided that the only alternative for me was to deliver the keys, under protest, and demand a receipt for the property. One thing certain, with the exception of the guns composing the armament of the water battery, the property seized is of no great value. The gentleman acting under the governor's instructions has promised to receipt to me for the stores.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY DOUGLAS,

Ordnance Sergeant, U. S. Army.

Colonel H. K. CRAIG,

Chief of Ordnance Department, U. S. Army.

Numbers 3. Reports of Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer, First U. S. Artillery, of the transfer of his command from Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens, and subsequent events (to February 5, 1861) in Pensacola Harbor.

BARRANCAS BARRACKS, FLA., January 8, 1861.

SIR: There are rumors that the citizens of Florida and Alabama intend taking possession of the fortifications in this harbor. They have already taken those at Mobile and Savannah. I am stationed with one company (G, First Artillery) at Barrancas Barracks, having also Fort

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0334 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Barrancas in charge. There are no accommodations for troops in the fort. Fort Pickens (unoccupied) commands the harbor, and should that work be taken possession of, our position would be useless as far as any protection to the harbor goes. Please furnish me with orders for my direction in the case before me. I have already telegraphed to the same effect.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

Colonel S. COOPER,

Adjutant-General U. S. Army.

FORT PICKENS, FLA., January 10, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on this date, I removed my command from Barranckas, Fla., to Fort Pickens, under special instructions received the previous day from the General-in-Chief.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding Post.

Colonel S. COOPER,

Adjutant-General, U. S. Army.

FORT PICKENS, FLA., February 5, 1861.

SIR: Having heard rumors that the forts and other public property in Pensacola Harbor were to be seized by troops under the orders of the governor of Florida, and having been advised of the seizure of the forts in Mobile Bay, I deemed it proper, having received no instructions from Washington, to endeavor to prevent, by all the means in my power, a like seizure here.

On the morning of the 7th ultimo, accompanied by Lieutenant Gilman, I called upon the commander of the navy-yard, Commodore Armstrong, to consult with him in reference to some plan to be adopted to insure the safety of the public property. We had a similar consultation on the evening of the same day and on the morning of the 8th. The commodore, in the absence of any orders, deemed it inexpedient to co-operate with us.

On the morning of the 8th I removed all the powder from the magazine in the Spanish battery of Fort Barrancas to the inner magazines, because, from its exposed position, it was liable to seizure at any moment. I also caused all the batteries to be put in working order, and at night placed a sergeant's guards in the fort with the drawbridge raised. That night a body of men (about went in number) came to the fort with the evident intention of taking possession. The corporal of the guard caused the alarm to be given, upon which the assailants retreated precipitately. The guard was immediately strengthened by half the company, but nothing further occurred that night.

On the morning of the 9th I received through the mail a letter, of which the following is a copy:

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, January 3, 1861.

First Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

First Artillery, or Commanding Officer Barrancas Barracks, Fla.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs that you take measures to do the utmost in your power to prevent the seizure of either of the first in Pensacola Harbor by surprise or assault, consulting first with the commander of the navy-yard, who will probably have received instructions to co-operate with you.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. W. LAY,

Lieutenant-Colonel,

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0335 Chapter IV. REPORTS

Immediately on its reception, accompanied by Lieutenant Gilman, I called on Commodore Armstrong to consult with him. He hands received orders to co-operate with me. We decided that with our limited means of defense we could hold but one fort, and that should be Fort Pickens, as it commanded completely the harbor and the forts, and also the navy-yard, and, in case of necessity, could be more readily re-enforced than either of the others, and presented the best means of defense. In order to act on this decision, the commodore premised to send the U. S. steamer Wyandotte at 1 o'clock p. m. to take us over, to give us all them men he could possibly spare, and to allow the steamer Wyandotte and the steamer Wyandotte and the store ship Supply to anchor under the guns of the fort, in order to protect the land approach.

At 10 o'clock a. m. I came with the greater part of my command, Company G, First Artillery, to Fort Pickens to mount guns and make necessary preparations for defense, leaving Lieutenant Gilman at Barrancas Barracks with the remainder to make the necessary arrangements for removal. At 1 p. m. Lieutenant Gilman, seeing no signs of the promised assistance, called to see the commodore, and was informed by him that the only assistance he could afford would be to furnish some provisions and take the command over, which fact Lieutenant Gilman reported to me at Fort Pickens. I immediately stopped all work, sent the men back, and with Lieutenant Gilman went to see the commodore. I scanted that I had been deceived by him; that he had promised me men and the co-operation of the two vessels of war, besides the mere fact of giving us provisions and taking us over; that with my command, only 46 strong, I should never dream of defending so large a work, calculated for upwards of 1,200 men; that I had been at work on that promise, and had thus lost a day's time in the preparation of Fort Barrancas for defense; that he had distinctly promised me what I asseverated. The commodore then sent for Commander Ferrand, Lieutenant Renshaw, and Lieutenant-Commander Berryman, and gave instructions for carrying out the original design.

Captain Berryman, of the steamer Wyandotte, promised to be ready to leave his wharf at 5 p. m., at which time all should bed in readiness at the Barrancas wharf for removal. I immediately returned to Barrancas Barracks to make preparations. As time was very limited all means were used to place the public property on the wharf for removal. Night came, and yet no signs of assistance. The company labored until 12 m., when a heavy fog coming in rendered it highly improbable that the steamer would come that night. At 8 a. m. on the 10th a flatboat was sent to the wharf, which was loaded, as well as all the small boats which could be had. We were landed at Fort Pickens at about 10 a. m. On the way over, Captain Berryman turned over to me thirty ordinary seamen from the yard, without arms or equipments of any kind. We labored all day until night carrying up the stores to the fort, and arranging for its defense. I directed that all the powder in Fort Barrancas should be taken out and rolled to the beach, for transportation if possible; if not, for destruction. Nearly all the powder and all the fixed ammunition for the field battery was brought over that day. All the guns bearing on the bay were spiked by my orders, in position, as I had neither means nor time to dismount them. The provisions required were, by agreement with the commodore, to be drawn from the Supply as they were wanted, instead of sending them from the yards; yet, almost the instant we landed the master of the yard came with some small stores in a barge, bringing with him an order from Commodore Armstrong to land the stores immediately and proceed to anchor off the

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center wharf of the yard. As I was not ready to receive the stores, the Supply remained at her anchor that night.

On the morning of the 11th I was informed by Captain Walke that he had received another order from Commodore Armstrong to deliver the stores and return to the navy-yard. Captain Berryman also told me that he expected to sail that evening or the next morning for the south side of Cuba. I immediately caused the following note to be addressed to the commodore by my acting adjutant, Lieutenant Gilman:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., January 11, 1861.

Commodore JAMES ARMSTRONG,

U. S. Navy:

SIR: I understand that it is your intention to withdraw from this fort the protection of the U. S. steamer Wyandotte and the storeship Supply, contrary to the agreement between you and myself day before yesterday. I again have the honor to state, as I did to you in presence of several officers at our last interview, that without the aid of those vessels it will be utterly impossible, in my opinion, for me to protect this harbor, and I shall therefore, in case this assistance is withdrawn, instantly relinquish all hope of defending the place, and report the state of affairs immediately by a messenger to Washington. I most respectfully request an immediate answer as to whether the assistant above referred to is to be withdrawn or not.

I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

(By order of A. J. Slemmer, First Artillery, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens:)

J. H. GILMAN,

Second Lieutenant, First Artillery, Acting Adjutant of the Post.

To which the commodore replied as follows:

COMMANDANT'S OFFICE, U. S. NAVY-YARD, PENSACOLA, Warrington, January 11, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

U. S. Army, Commanding at Fort Pickens, Fla.:

SIR: In reply to your communication of this date, I have to state that the U. S. storeship Supply was sent to Fort Pickens by my order merely to convey the provisions you required and to return to this navy-yard. The Supply is not a vessel of war, and having been sent to this station on the special service of conveying stores and coal to Vera Cruz for the vessels of the home squadron stationed there, it is my duty to dispatch her to that port at the earliest moment practicable, in conformity with the orders I have received from the Navy Department, from which orders I cannot deviate further.

The steamer Wyandotte may be retained, for the purpose of co-operating with you, until further orders.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES ARMSTRONG,

Commandant.

The Wyandotte and Supply remained at anchor under the fort that night. Captain Berryman sent me during the evening thirty muskets and bayonets to arm the ordinary seamen, which he had procured after some difficulty from the navy-yard. He also had for me some musket cartridges which were promised me from the yard, as my supply was limited.

On the morning of the 12th, Captain Walke, of the Supply, showed me a communication to him from the commodore, saying that the yard was besieged, and that when attacked the Supply must immediately proceed to Vera Cruz. I received no information from the yard whatever of the fact. I immediately addressed a note to the commodore, to this purport:

Commodore JAMES ARMSTRONG:

Commandant U. S. Navy-Yard, Warrington, Fla.:

SIR: I am informed that the navy-yard is besieged. In case you determine to capitulate, please send me the marines to strengthen my command.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding Fort Pickens.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0337 Chapter IV. REPORTS

To which I received no reply. Several hours after this the United States flag was lowered from the navy-yard. The Supply was towed outside by the Wyandotte, and both vessels remained anchored at a distance of about five miles. That night Captain Berryman told me that his orders of the previous evening were to co-operate with me, but especially that he must not fire a gun unless his vessel was attacked. He could offer me no assistance in case I were assaulted. Left thus entirely to depend on ourselves for defense-eighty-one men, including officers--active preparations were made for flank defense, the guns being loaded with grape and canister, and the embrasures closed as well as possible.

On my arrival I found that there was not a single embrasure shutter in the fort. I caused some to be constructed, and others to be taken from Fort McRee to supply the deficiency. Just after retreat four gentlemen (three in military clothing) presented themselves at the gate, and demanded admittance as citizens of Florida and Alabama. They were told that by order no person was permitted to enter the fort. They then asked to see the commanding officer. I immediately went to the gate, accompanied by Lieutenant Gilman. Mr. Abert, engineer of the yard, presented Captain Randolph, Major Marks, and Lieutenant Rutledge. After a pause, Captain Randolph said, "We have been sent to demand a peaceable surrender of this fort by the governors of Florida and Alabama." To which I replied that I was here under the orders of the President of the United States, and by direction of the General-in-Chief of the Army; that I recognized no right of any governor to demand a surrender of United States property; that my orders were distance and explicit. They immediately withdrew.

At 12 o'clock at night the men were paraded and told off to the different batteries in anticipation of an attack, slow-march lighted, with lanyards and port fires in hand ready to fire. No signs of an attack; night very dark and rainy. We still labored on the 13th strengthening our position, and at the guns as on the night previous. Night very dark and rainy. On the night of the 13th a body of some ten men were discovered evidently reconnoitering. A shot was fired by them, which was returned by the sergeant. They then retreated . Nothing more could be seen of the party that night. On the 14th nothing of interest transpired. Men by this time almost worn out with labor, standing guard, and at the batteries day and night, for we anticipated an attack at any moment.

On the 15th Colonel Chase, commanding the forces of Florida, accompanied by Commander Farrand, late of the U. S. Navy, asked for a consultation, at which Colonel Chase read me the following letter:

HEADQUARTERS PENSACOLA DISTRICT, January 15, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens, Harbor of Pensacola:

SIR: I have full powers from the governor of Florida to take possession of the forts and navy-yard, &amp;c., &c., in this habor. I desire to perform this duty without the effusion of blood. You can contribute toward this desirable result, and, in my judgement, without sacrifice of the honor of yourself or your gallant officers and men. Now, as commissioner on the part of the governor of the State of Florida, I request the surrender of Fort Pickens and the public property it contains into my hands, to be held subject to any agreement that may be entered into between the commissioners of the State of Florida and the Federal Government at Washington. I would not counsel you to do aught that was dishonorable; on the contrary, to do that which will secure for you the commendation of all Christian gentlemen; and if you refuse and hold out, for whom do you consent that blood shall flow-the blood of brethren? Certainly not for the deadly enemies to the assaulters, for they are not such, but brethren of the same race. If the Union now broken should be reconstructed Fort Pickens and all the

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public property passes peacefully under Federal authority. If a Southern Confederacy separates itself from the Union would it not be worse than folly to attempt the maintenance of Fort Pickens or any other fortified place within its limits?

Listen to me, then, I beg of you, and act with me in preventing the shedding the blood of your brethren. Surrender the fort. You and your command may reoccupy the barracks and quarters at Barancas on your simple parole to remain there quietly until ordered away, or to resume the command of the harbor should an adjustment of present difficulties in the Union be arrived at.

All the baggage and private property of and kind belonging to yourself, officers, men, and their families shall be preserved to you. Consider this well, and take care that you will so act so to have no fearful recollections of a tragedy that you might have averted, but rather to make the present moment one of the glorious, because Christian like, of your life.

I beg of you to receive this communication in the same spirit in which it is offered.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CHASE.

I asked, "How many men have you? The colonel answered, "Tonight I shall have between eight and nine hundred." I then said that I would consider his letter, and would give my answer the next morning. I also desire to consult with the captains of the Supply and Wyandotte, which vessels were lying of the navy-yard under a white flag. The colonel said he would make arrangements for their coming to the fort, and would see them as he passed. I made this request for two reasons-first, because thereby I would gain more time for resting my men (who were completely exhausted), and, second, becasure I deemed it but courtesy on my part to consult them with reference to anything which would affect our common flag, and because one of them was in name co-operating with me. They did not come, however, I after-wards learned that the permission came in such a form that they could not accept it.

The next morning I was with surprise both vessels under way going out of the harbor. I immediately sent a boat with Lieutenant Gilman to learn to cause of the movement. Captain Walke desired Lieutenant Gilmon to go on board the Wyandotte-that he would join him there. On Lieutenant Gilman's representations Captain Walke ordered the Wyandotte to stay and render us assistance, and take us off if necessary on being overcome by a superior force. The following letter was then sent to Colonel Chase at the navy-yard:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., Pensacola Harbor, January 16, 1861.

Colonel W. H. CHASE,

Commissioner for the State of Florida:

SIR: Under the orders we now have from the War Department, we have decided, after consultations with the Government officers in the harbor, that it is our duty to hold or position until such a force is brought against us as to render it impossible to defend it, or until the political condition of the country is such as to induce us to surrender the public property in our keeping to such authorities as may be delegated legally to receive it.

We deprecate as much as you or any individual can the present condition of affairs, or the shedding of the blood of our brethren. In regard to this matter, however, we must consider you the aggressors, and if blood is shed that you are responsible therefor.

By order of A. J. Slemmer, first lieutenant, First Artillery, commanding:

J. H. GILMAN,

Second Lieutenant, First Artillery, Act. Post Adjt.

Captain Berryman took this letter to the yard, and then ran out of the harbor.

On the 117th I mounted one 12-pounder gun and one 8-inch sea-coast howitzer on the northwest bastion. I had previously mounted three 32-pounders in the southeast bastion, and rendered effective the 24-

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pounder flank-defense howitzers, besides placing my field battery on the ramparts for effective service.

On the 18th the steamer Wayndotte came again in sight. Received another letter from Colonel Chase, of which the following is a copy:

HEADQUARTERS PENSACOLA DISTRICT, January 18, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor, Fla.:

SIR: With additional re-enforcements to my forces, arrived and expected, I would again request the surrender of Fort Pickens, referring you to my first letter on the subject, and offering the same terms as contained therein.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. CHASE,

Colonel, Commanding Forces of Florida.

Which was answered as follows:

FORT PICKENS, PENSACOLA HARBOR, January 18, 1861.

Colonel W. H. CHASE,

Commanding Forces of Florida, &amp;c.:

SIR: Before I can answer your communication of this date, it is necessary that I communicate with Captain Berryman, of the U. S. steamer Wyandotte, co-operating with me. The result of such confederate I will make known to you to-morrow morning.

By order of Lieutenant A. J. Slemmer, First Artillery, commanding Fort Pickens:

J. H. GILMAN,

Second Lieutenant, First Artillery, Act. Adjt. of Post.

A gun was fired to attract attention, and signal made to send a boat ashore. The steamer came to anchor off the southeast bastion of the fort. On the morning of the 19th the following reply was sent:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., January 19, 1861.

Colonel W. H. CHASE,

Commanding the Forces of Florida, &c.:

SIR: In reply to your communication of yesterday I have the honor to state that as yet I know of no reason why my answer to your communication of the 16th should be changed, and I therefore very respectfully refer you to that reply for the answer to this.

By order of First Lieutenant A. J. Slemmer, First Artillery, commanding Fort Pickens:

J. H. GILMAN,

Second Lieutenant, Fort Artillery, A. Post Adjt.

On the 20th a party of sailors from the steamer Wyandotte came to assist us to mount a 10-inch columbiad. They labored that day and part of the next with imperfect materials, but at last succeeded in placing it in the thrunnion beds. On the 22nd and 23rd nothing of importance transpired. We have had almost continued rain since the occupation of the fort.

On the 24th, thinking it time that better feelings should exist toward us, I sent a boat under a white flag to the navy-yard, in order to obtain, if possible, the mail matter which had accumulated now since the 9th instant. It was refused by the authorities at the post-office. I then addressed the following note to Colonel Chase:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., January 24, 1861.

Colonel WM. H. CHASE,

Commanding the Forces of Florida:

SIR: I have the honor to request that you will permit Captain Berryman to procure, or have procured for him, the mail matter, letters, papers, &c., which may have acculated for me and my command at the Warrington post-office. My main matter has been refused me forces, and from a knowledge of your personal character.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0340 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Colonel Chase not being present at the yard, Captain Randolph, commandant, ordered my mail matter to be taken to his office. On the 26th I received the following communications:

HEADQUARTERS NAVY YARD, January 26, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens:

SIR: I have this moment received your communication of the 24th instant. I have been absent at Montgomery, which will immediately inquire at the post-office about your mail matter, and attend to your request. I would also inform you that you may be supplied with fresh provisions daily if you desire. I will communicate with you again.

In haste, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. CHASE,

Colonel, Commanding.

HEADQUARTERS NAVY YARD, January 26, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens:

SIR: I have given strict orders this morning that no citizen or soldier should be permitted to pass from this side towards Fort Pickens, or to land on Santa Rosa Island, and I now inform you of the fact and also that I shall use every effort to have my orders executed. I have just been informed that some four or five men started on a fishing excursion on the island, and as they must have been ignorant of my orders jus issued, I would request that if they have landed on the island they may be sent back.

Any collision growing out of persons going over to the island or near Fort Pickens would be most unfortunate in the present state of affairs, and I would request you to join me in preventing it; and to this effect I would also request that persons in boats may be warned off, and if any should land, they should be ordered to re-embark. This should be done in a way to prevent angry feelings between the parties.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CHASE,

Colonel, Commanding Forces.

To which I replied as follows:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., January 26, 1861.

Colonel W. H. CHASE,

Commanding Forces:

SIR: Your communication in answer to mine of the 24th instant is before me. I have directed Lieutenant Gilman to proceed to the navy-yard and consult with you with reference to supplies of fresh provisions and the mail facilities of my command.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

FORT PICKENS, FLA., January 26, 1861.

Colonel W. H. CHASE,

Commanding Forces of Florida:

SIR: It gives me much pleasure to learn of your order with reference to the passage of boats and men ot Fort Pickens and Santa Rosa Island from the yards and vicinity. I have given strict orders to allow no boats to land, and in all cases of boats approaching the island I am notified of the fact.

This morning I was informed by my sentinels that a boat with four men was approaching the island above the fort the navy yard. I immediately sent and had them apprehended, saw the men myself, and directed that they re-embarked for the navy-yard, which was done, I believe, without any ill feelings being engendered. I will, rest assured, do all in my power to prevent any collision growing out of boats landing on the island, and sincerely hope that your orders and vigilance may prevent any from coming over without your permission and flag.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding Fort Pickens.

Later in the day the mail for myself and command was brought over from the yard with the following note:

HEADQUARTERS PENSACOLA DISTRICT, January 26, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER,

Commanding Fort Pickens:

SIR: I send over your mail. The mail will be delivered to you in future without delay.

Respectfully, &amp;c.,

W. H. CHASE,

Colonel, Commanding Forces, &C.

I cannot close this report without saying a few words with reference to my command. From the first day they day nobly vindicated

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the honor of American Army. Through all the toil and excessive labor by day and standing by the guns at night, for ten days wet to the skin, without adequate sleep or rest, not one word of complaint has been uttered, but the most cheerful obedience readily given to all commands. Had we been attacked during those days dreadful would have been the havoc, and we were menaced every day and night, from the 12th to the 26th, by the increasing number opposite us, numbering at one time over 2,000 men. All that prevented, I am confident (for such was the pitch to which their mad folly had carried them), was Colonel Chase's knowledge of the strength and means of resistance within the fort, and our steady and firm adherence to the course determined on from the beginning, not to allow ourselves one moment to think of surrendering unless absolutely overpowered by numbers.

I would recommend especially to the favorable notice of the General-in-Chief, First Sergeant Alexander Jamieson, Sergeant Boyd, Corporals Caldwell and O'Donnell, of Company G, First Artillery, for especial coolness and activity in their several stations.

Of Lieutenant Gilman I have only to say that during the whole affair we have stood side, and if any credit is due for the course pursued he is entitled equally with myself.

I have descended into particulars in many places, but I did so to show the difficulties thrown in our way in the execution of our orders, and by persons, too, who had it in their power to render us to great assistance.

Troops occupy Fort Barrances, Barrancas Barranks, and Fort McRee. No guns are mounted at Fort McRee to my knowledge. On the 11th, Lieutenant Erben, of the storeship Supply, destroyed all the powder and the materials he could not bring over to Fort Pickens which would be necessary for the revolutionists to mount the guns, thus doing good service to the Union States.

The present armament here, mounted and for service, is as follows:Fourteen 32-pounders, seven 12-pounders, one 8-inch sea-coast howitzer, one 10-inch columbiad, six filed pieces, twenty-five 24-pounder howitzers-flank defense. Total, 54.

I have provisions for five months for my present command; also a sufficient quantity of water.

Nothing of interest has transpired from the 26th ultimo up to this date except the reception of orders by telegraph, and since by special messenger, with reference to the landing of troops, &amp;c.

I would most respectfully request that a surgeon be detailed for the command.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding Post.

Colonel L. THOMAS,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Army.

I have eighty-two men, all told-forty-eight, Company G, First Artillery, and thirty-one ordinary seamen (of these, seventy-seven are for duty); two ordnance sergeants, and one hospital steward-not enough for the ordinary garrison duty hind the present emergency.* I have but

---------------

*The original of this paper is indorsed as follows:

"This paper was given me by Lieutenant Slemmer without names or date. It relates to Fort Pickens, and is respectfully submitted.

---------------

"H. S. PUTNAM,

"Lieutenant Top. Engineers.

"Colonel L. THOMAS,

Assistant Adjutant-General."

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two reliefs for duty. They mount guard every other day. All the caseate flank-defense guns are in good order and serviceable. In barbette I have on the land approach nearly all the guns mounted and available. I have now more guns shorted than with my command in case of an attack I could use. There are no preparations now which look to an attack on the fort that I am aware of. Scaling ladders were prepared some time since in the navy-yard, and aero now ready for any emergency. Sand batteries were in progress of erection immediately opposite, but I think more to keep the volunteers employed than for effective service. The distance is too great for breaching batteries unless heavy and rifled cannon were used, of which they have none now available. Shells could, however, be thrown into the fort from these batteries. The fort can be attacked on all sides by storming parties landing from the other side in boats under cove of the night, and with a small force it would be almost impossible to prevent its being taken.

Under present orders the vessels of the Navy ordered here could, in case of an assault, render me little or no assistance, as before they could land their forces the fort would be taken.





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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0342 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.


Numbers 4. Reports of Captain John M. Brannan, First U. S. Artillery, in reference to occupation of Fort Taylor, Key West.

FORT TAYLOR, KEY WEST, FLA., January 14, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in consequence of the recent seizure by unauthorized persons of several forts and arsenals in the Southern States, I have placed my entire command in Fort Taylor for the purpose of protecting it. I shall, until orders from the General Government to the contrary, defend it to the best of my ability with the scanty force (forty-four men) at my disposal . I inclose a copy of a communication I addressed direct to the Adjutant-General on December 11, 186-0, to which I received no reply; also a copy of a letter from Captain E. B. Hunt, Corps of Engineers, in charge of Fort Taylor. As mail facilities have entirely ceased between Key West and the North, I would suggest that any orders for me be forwarded from New York City, via Havana, to the care of the American consul.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding.

Lieutenant Colonel L. THOMAS,

Asst. Adjt., General, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C.

[Inclosure Numbers 1.]

KEY WEST BARRACKS, FLA., December 11, 1860.

SIR: The present condition of affairs in this State indicates very clearly that Florida, by the act of her people, will secede from the Federal Government. I have reliable information that as soon as the act is committed and attempt will be made to seize upon Fort Taylor. I therefore request instructions what I am to do-endeavor at all hazards

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0343 Chapter IV. REPORTS


to prevent Fort Taylor being taken or allow the State authorities to have possession without any resistance on the part of my command? These instructions are absolutely necessary now, as it may be too late after the State secedes to receive any, in consequence of communications being cut off from the seat of Government.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding.,

Colonel S. COOPER,

Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington City, D. C.

[Inclosure Numbers 2.]

FORT TAYLOR, KEY WEST, FLA., January 12, 1861.

SIR: In consequence of the disordered state of public affairs, of the reported seizure of various neighboring forts and arsenals, of my own lack of means for maintaining a secure guard of this most important fortification, and of the near approach of the discharge of most of my enrolled mechanics and laborers, I deem it my duty to call upon you to make [secure] the military custody of Fort Taylor, and to adopt such measures for its security as you shall deem proper. I shall heartily co-operate in my appropriate capacity as an officer of Engineers, and shall in a few days complete all the defensive preparations now required. I would, therefore, hereby ask you at once to assume the military command of Fort Taylor. I shall by letter of this date ask Captain Craven, of the Mohawk, to consult with you and give his aid for this object.

Very respectfully, yours, &amp;c.,

E. B. HUNT,

Captain, Engineers.

Captain J. M. BRANNAN,

First Artillery, Commanding Key West Barracks.

FORT TAYLOR, KEY WEST, FLA., January 115, 1861.

SIR: In consequence of the secession of this State and the seizure of the forts and arsenals in other Southern States, I have moved my command to Fort Taylor, and shall; defend it to the last moment against any force attempting to capture it. I have four months' provisions and 70,000 gallons water, but we cannot a siege against any organized army, and therefore should be re-enforced immediately. Two vessels of war should be stationed here to protect the entrance to the harbor and prevent a landing beyond the range of my guns. Mail facilities having ceased through Florida, all orders for this post should be sent via Havana from New York through the American consul.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding.

Major GEORGE DEAS,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Dept. of the East, Troy, N. Y.

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FORT TAYLOR, KEY WEST, FLA., January 26, 1861.

SIR: I have to report that no demonstration has been made upon this fort to this date. There is no apprehension from the population of moment from the mainland. If my company was filled up to a hundred men, and a sloop of war stationed in this harbor, there would be no danger of any successful attack, or even an attempt at present. The defenses are improving daily.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding.

Colonel S. COOPER,

Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

P. S.-I have received no communication from the Department in answer to my letter of December 11, 1860.

FORT TAYLOR, KEY WEST, FLA., January 31, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt on the 26th instant of a communication [following] from the headquarters of the Army, dated the 4th instant, ordering my whole company to this fort. I had anticipated the order some time ago. This is the only dispatch I have received from the Department on this subject. There are about sixty men, mechanics and laborers, on the work, who are willing to take the fate of it, and assist in defending the same. I require at least fifty more muskets for these men. If my company was raised to a hundred and a sloop of war stationed here there would be no apprehension of an attack at present. The power is not the best, and the supply of ammunition is limited except for heavy guns. It is very necessary that the Ordnance Department should attend to it immediately. I have sent a requisition direct to Colonel Craig. The fort is being put in a very good state of defense by Captain Hunt, and will be in short time able to stand an attack very successfully. With a vessels of war in the harbor a landing could be easily prevented.

I transferred to Major Arnold six 8-inch columbiads, with seven hundred shells; two 6-pounder and two 12-pounder howitzers, with a small supply of ammunition for the latter; 10,000 pounds of powder. He has all of his guns mounted and in position, and is really stronger than I am, as he cannot be attacked by land. We have communication with each other every few days.

In about a week I shall have ten 8-inch guns on the gorge or land front, which will enable me to prevent the establishing of breaching batteries without considerable difficulty. The General-in-Chief may rest assured that this work will not be taken without a severe struggle.

The Macedonian passed Key West on the night of the 29th instant for Turtugas. The Brooklyn arrived in the harbor this morning and will sail to-morrow night. All well on board.

I would suggest that a paymaster be ordered here to pay the troops. Last payment to October 31.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding.

Lieutenant Colonel L. THOMAS,

Asst. Adjt. General, Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, City, D. C.

P. S.-I send this dy the U. S. steamer Mohawk.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0345 Chapter IV. REPORTS

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, January 4, 1861.

SIR: It is the direction of the General-in-Chief that you transfer the whole of your company to Fort Taylor. Be on your guard against surprise or assault, and do the commander of any United States man-of war in the harbor, and invite his co-operation. Such commander will probably have received orders (if they can be got to him) to act in concert with you.

Major Arnold with his company is ordered from Boston, to proceed by steamer, if possible to garrison Fort Jefferson. There is some apprehension that an expedition is fitting out in Charleston to take one or both of the forts, Taylor and Jefferson. It is hoped that Captain Hunt may, which his workmen, be able to give you some assistance in defending yourself. If necessary for that purpose you may take one or two boxes of the muskets shipped in the Walker With intended for Captain Meigs.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. LAY,

Lieutenant-Colonel, and A. D. C.

Captain John M. BRANNAN,

First Artillery, Commanding Key West Barracks, Fla.

FORT TAYLOR, KEY WEST, FLA., February 6, 1861.

SIR: Nothing has occurred at Key West since my last communication to disturb my relations with its citizens. It is very doubtful now if any attempt will be made upon this fort. I have transferred seven more 8-inch columbiads to Major Arnold, which will give him additional strength if ammunition is furnished him by the Ordnance Department. My powder is very bad; also friction tubes. A supply should be sent here immediately.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding.

Lieutenant Colonel L. THOMAS,

Asst. Adjt. General, Headquarters Army, Washington City, D. C.

Numbers 5. Reports of Bvt. Major Lewis G. Arnold, Second U. S. Artillery, of the occupation of Fort Jefferson, Tortugas.

HEADQUARTERS FORT INDEPENDENCE, January 10, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I embark with my command this afternoon on board the steamer Joseph Whitney for Fort Jefferson, Fla. Orders of the General-in-Chief by telegraph. Strength of command, four commissioned officers and sixty-two enlisted men.

Names of officers: Bvt. Major L. G. Arnold, commanding; Surg. A.

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N. McLaren, First Lieutenant Henry Benson, First Lieutenant M. M. Blunt, A. A. Q. M. and A. C. S.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. G. ARNOLD,

Brevet Major, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Lieutenant-Colonel THOMAS,

Asst. Adjt. General, U. S. Army, New York City.

HEADQUARTERS FORT JEFFERSON, TORTUGAS, January 18, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived at Fort Jefferson to day with my command; garrisoned and assumed command of the post, in accordance with the instructions of the General-in-Chief, dated Washington, January 5, 1861. Strength: four commissioned officers and sixty-two enlisted men, Bvt. Major L. G. Arnold, commanding; Surg. A. N. McLean, First Lieutenant Blunt. I would respectfully inquire if Fort Jefferson is a double-ration post? If not, I request that it be announced as such in orders from the War Department, from the 18th instant.

I am,very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. G. ARNOLD,

Brevet Major, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Colonel S. COOPER,

Adjt. General U. S. Army,

Washington City, D. C.

HEADQUARTERS FORT JEFFERSON, TORTUGAS, January 23, 1861.

SIR: I have the honor to report for the information of the General-in-Chief that I found on my arrival here, notwithstanding the energetic, well-directed, and highly-commendable efforts of Captain Meigs, the Engineer in charge, that Fort Jefferson could not be successfully defended from a judiciously-planned and concerted attack with a formidable force without having each front of the work and each bastion armed with artillery.

By the advice of Captain Meigs I dispatched the steamer Joseph Whitney, with Captain Meigs, Engineers, and Lieutenant Benson, Second Artillery, to Key West, where there is an abundance of guns and munitions, with a letter to Captain Meigs, and to send me such guns, &amp;c., as Captain Meigs might deem necessary for the immediate defense of Fort Jefferson, in order that the honor of the Government and the defense of both forts might be maintained.

I am happy to report what Captain Meigs has returned from Key West in the steamer Joseph Whitney with six 8-inch columbiads and four field pieces and an ample supply of ammunition, which, with the two field pieces I brought from Fort Independence, will enable me as soon as they are in position to make a strong defense, most probably to hold this important-the key of the Gulf-against any force that is likely to be brought against it.

I herewith inclose a copy of Captain Meigs' report, and I will here

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take occasion to express my high sense of the services of Captain Meigs to render this fort defensible.

I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

L. G. ARNOLD,

Brevet Major, U. S. Army, Commanding.

Lieutenant Colonel L. THOMAS,

Asst. Adj. General, U. S. Army, Headquarters Army, New York City.

[Inclosure.]

ENGINEER OFFICE, FORT JEFFERSON, Harbor of Tortugas, U. S., January 23, 1861.

SIR: I have to report that I returned this morning on board the steamer Joseph Whitney, towing the Horace Beale, loaded with guns and ammunition, which I obtained from Fort Taylor. Lieutenant Benson, in whose charge you had placed the steamer, rendered me valuable assistance in embarking the heavy materials. Captain Maffit, of the U. S. steamer Crusader, to guard against every possible contingency, kindly convoyed us from Key West.

I recommend that one 8-inch columbiad be placed in the first right curtain casemete on the right and left of bastions A, C, and E., one flanking gun in the caseate next the curtains in each basion.

The artillerymen will be able to disembark and transport the guns and ammunition, and from the laborers of the Engineer Department all needful manual aid will be afforded. Two mules belonging to the Engineer Department are also at your service, if useful. A caseate gun and sling cart are on board the brigantine. A truck and wheelbarrow are in the Engineers' park. The guns, I believe, can all be in place by to-night.

The Mohawk, which at my request came here on our arrival at Key West, will, I doubt non, if you desire it, remain here until the guns are in place; after which it would hardly be necessary to detain her, so far as the safety of this work is concerned, if she has other duties of importance to look after. Her presence, however, would, if she is not urgently needed elsewhere, be only a prudent and proper precaution.

I am, very respectfully and truly, your obedient servant,

M. C. MEIGS,

Captain, Engineers, Eng. in charge of Fort Jefferson.

Major L. G. ARNOLD,

Commanding Fort Jefferson.

Numbers 6. Report of Captain E. Yuell, assistant commissary of substance, C. S. Army, of the destructions of the Alvarado by the U. S. Steamer Vincennes.

FERNANDINA, FLA., August [6], 1861.

SIR: On yesterday morning the town was thrown into commotion by the report that two vessels were on the coast, one of which was fleeing to secure an entrance over our bar, the other in pursuit to effect a capture. The whole of our people armed, and proceeded to the beach, about two miles from town. A company from the post at Fort Clinch, with a 6-pounder, was also dispatched to the beach, which, in a addition to anther 6-pounder from town, made town, made the whole of our defensive and offensive armament. When I arrived in view of the vessels I found a

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0348 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

bark stranded at one and one-half miles from shore, with her sails set and abandoned by her crew, who had just landed, and in the offing was a large United States man-of-war, which I have since learned was the Vincennes. The bark was one of the prizes of the Jeff. Davis private, seeking a harbor, and which she very nearly effected. After much maneuvering the man-of-war anchored, sent out her boats, which, finding it in vain to try to save the vessel, set fire to her, and she is burned to the water's edge. Our 6-pounders were unavailing, and I take occasion to say that we have not a military company at this post capable of service as artilleries. Few of our volunteers have ever seen anything larger than a musket before coming to this station. The enemy can at any moment land here and take possession without much hinderance four our defensive works. We are entirely at this mercy. After setting fire to the vessel the man-of-war left our shores, and has not since been seen till late to-day. I learn she was seen this afternoon again in the offing. The name of the prize vessel is the Alvarado, owned in Boston, commander by G. C. Whiting. She left Cape Town, Table Bay, in Africa, on June 3. Her cargo was wool, sheep and goat skins, old copper and iron, and some crude medicines, and was valued at $70,000. She was taken by the Jeff. Davis on July 21, in latitude 25o 30' and longitude 61o. Cargo owned by Isaac Taylor, of Boston, Mass. Captain Whiting and wife, with a negro steward, were on board of the prize sent home by Captain Coxsitter, with no other apparel than that they had on. I had them sent to a boarding house, and shall communicate with the Confederate States marshal, and put them under his charge. The ladies with great philanthropy have raised enough money to clothe our enemies. They will, therefore, be provided for. The prize crew are all safe, and were glad to escape in a boat from the stranded bark.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. YUELL,

Captain, and A. C. S.

Honorable SECRETARY OF WAR,

Richmond, Va.

CORRESPONDENCE AND ORDERS RELATING SPECIALLY TO THE OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA FROM JANUARY 6 TO AUGUST 31, 1861.

UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

SENATE CHAMBER, December 21, 1860.

Honorable JOHN B. FLOYD,

Secretary of War:

SIR: You will;l oblige me by a statement of the officers connected with the Army of the United States who were appointed from Florida, their rank, and pay.

Respectfully yours,

D. L. YULEE,

WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, December 28, 1860.

Honorable D. L. YULLE,

Senate:

SIR: In answer to your letter of the 21st instant I have the honor to inclose to you a statement showing the names, rank, and pay, and emol-

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0349 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

uments of the officers of the United States Army appointed from Florida.* The contingent allowances for fuel and quarters and similar items are not included.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. FLOYD,

Secretary of War.

SENATE CHAMBER, January 2, 1861.

To the SECRETARY OF WAR:

SIR: We respectfully request you to inform us what is the numerical forces of the troops now in garrison at the various posts in the State of Florida, and the amount of arms, heavy and small, and ammunition, fixed and loose, at the various forts and arsenals in the State.+

Respectfully, your obedient servants,

D. L. YULEE,

S. R. MALLORY.

ORDNANCE OFFICE, Washington, D. C., January 3, 1861.

Honorable J. HOLT,

Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the reference to this office of a letter from the honorables Messrs. Yulee and Mallory, of the Senate, dated 21 instant, and, in compliance with their request, to report that there is only one arsenal in the State of Florida, and that is one of deposit only. It is called Apalachicola Arsenal, and is situated near the town of Chattahoochee, at the junction of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers.++ The arms, ammunition, &amp;c., now at that post, are one 6-pounder iron gun and carriage, with 326 shot and canisters for the same, 57 flintlock muskets, 5,122 pounds of powder, 173,476 cartridges for small-arms and a small quantity of different kinds of accouterments.

The ordnance and ordnance stores at the other military posts in Florida are as follows:

At Fort Barrancas.-Forty-four sea-coast and garrison cannon and 43 carriages, viz: Thirteen 8-inch columbiads and howitzers; two 10-inch mortars, and eleven 32, ten 24, five 18, and three 19-pounder guns; 3,152 projectiles for the same; 20,244 pounds of powder, and 2,966 cartridge bags.

At Barrancas Barracks.-A field battery, consisting of four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, with carriages, and six caissons, with 300 projectiles and 270 cartridge bags for the same.

At Fort Pickens.-Two hundred and one sea-coast and garrison cannon, viz: Four 10-inch columbiads and four 10-inch mortars, fifty 8-inch and flanking howitzers, and two 42, sixty-two 32, fifty-nine 24, six 18, and fourteen 12 pounder guns, and 128 carriages for the same; also, 4,974 projectiles of all kinds; 3,195 grape-shot, loose; 500 24-pounder stands canister shot; 12,712 pounds of powder, and 1,728 cartridge bags.

At Fort Taylor.-Sixty sea-coast and garrison cannon, viz: Fifty 8-inch columbiads and ten 24-inch flanking howitzers, with caissons, and four 12-pounder field howitzers, mounted; 4,530 projectiles, suited to

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*List not deemed of sufficient importance for publication.

+See Maynadier to Holt, January 3, p. 349; Yulee and Mallory to Holt, January 7, p. 351, and Holt to Yulee and Mallory, January 9, 1861, p. 351.

++See Holt to Yulee and Mallory, January 9, 1861, p. 351.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0350 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

the guns; 34,459 pounds of powder; 2,826 cartridge bags; 962 priming tubes, and 759 cartridges for small arms.

At Fort McRee.-One hundred and twenty-five sea-coast and garrison cannon, including three 10-inch and twelve 8-inch columbiads; twenty-two 42, twenty-four 32, and sixty-four 24 pounder guns, with 64 gun carriages; 9,026 projectiles, and 1,258 stands of grape and canister, and 19,298 pounds of powder.

At Key West Barracks.-Four 6-pounder field guns and carriages; 1,101 rounds of shot and other ammunition for the same; 171 pounds of powder; 158 cartridge bags; 538 priming tubes; 7 rifles, and 2,000 rifle cartridges.

At Fort Marion.-Six field batteries, of four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers, and twenty sea-coast and garrison cannon, viz: Four 8-inch howitzers and sixteen 32-pounder guns; also six 6-pounder old iron guns, and 31 foreign guns of various calibers; 2,021 projectiles; 330 rounds of fixed ammunition ; 873 priming tubes, and 931 pounds of 17,720 cartridges for small-arms, and 15,00 percussion caps.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. MAYNADIER,

Captain of Ordnance.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, January 4, 1861.

Major ZEALOUS B. TOWER,

U. S. Engineer Corps:

SIR: With this you will receive an order assigning you to duty according to your brevet rank, and placing you under my command. You will proceed without delay to the Barrancas and assume the command of the troops and forts in and about Pensacola Harbor. You will wait on the commander of the Pensacola navy-yard, ask his hearty co-operation in the great object of your mission, viz, to prevent the seizure of those works or either of them by any body of men whatsoever. Should either of them be preoccupied by any hostile body of men you will first summon them to surrender, and, in case of refusal, consult with the naval commander as to the sufficiency of your join means to compel a surrender, and if it should appear to both on grave consideration that the means are sufficient you will exert them to a reasonable extent to effect that object.

Should the intruders surrender without the application of force you may permit them to depart in pease, with the promise of an exemption from legal pursuit, and if the surrender be the result of the application of force permit the captives to depart, but without any promise whatever.

With every confidence in you, I remain yours, truly,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

If the telegraphic wires be in operation, report often; but both the wires and the mail may be under hostile control. In important cases, therefore, send messengers.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, January 4, 1861.

Captain MEIGS,

U. S. Engineers:

SIR: With this letter you will received one hundred rounds of cartridges for each

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0351 Chapter XVI. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

musket, to be used in defense of Fort Jefferson if you can find hand to use them. Major Arnold eighth his company will probably sail from Boston on the 7th instant to garrison your work. In the mean time it is quite possible that some attempt may be made to seize the fort by an expedition sailing from Charleston, say in the Isabel, and secessionists from Florida. All that it is possible for you to do without troops we know will be performed.

WINFIELD SCOTT.

SENATE CHAMBER, January 7, 1861.

Honorable SECRETARY OF WAR:

SIR: We addressed a letter to your Department a week past, asking certain information interesting to be known to us in connection with our public duty, and not having received a reply we beg leave to call your attention to it, and to ask early an answer as may be convenient to you.

Respectfully yours,

D. L. YULEE.

S. R. MALLORY.

WAR DEPARTMENT,

Washington, January 9, 1861.

Hons. D. L. YULEE and S. R. MALLORY:

GENTLEMEN: In reply to your note of the 2nd instant I have the honor to state that the interests of the service forbid that the information which you ask should at this moment be made public.

Very, &amp;c.,

J. HOLT,

Secretary of War ad interim.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

Washington, January 21, 1861.

Bvt. Colonel JUSTIN DIMICK,

Lieutenant Colonel, Second Artillery, Commanding Fort Monroe, Va.:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs that you embark, after arrangements with the commander of the sloop-of-war Brooklyn, one company of the First Artillery with at least three officers, with arms, a good supply of ammunition, and as much subsistence, not exceeding four months' supply, as the Brooklyn may be willing to receive. Fill up the company to the maximum standard by transfer. Some spare arms should go with it. Issue, or if there be time purchase and ship, a good supply the name of the captain designated by you. They are not to be opened until he is at sea.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. THOMAS,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-Put on board, if possible, sic field howitzers with their carriages and equipments and one hundred rounds of ammunition.

L. T.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0352 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

Washington, January 21, 1861.

[Captain ISRAEL VOGDES,]

First Artillery, Fort Monroe, Va.:

SIR: Your are designated to embark with your company on board the sloop-of-war Brooklyn to re-enforce Fort Pickens, of which you will become the commander as well as of other forts and barracks which it may be in your power to occupy and defend with the co-operation of any naval commander or commanders at hand, although it is understood that Fort Barrancas and probably Fort McRee are already in the hands of the seceders. It is probable that the Brooklyn may be obliged to land you be beyond the protection of its guns if the debarkation should be opposed. Of course, the company will be first landed to cover the supplies which are intended for the fort. The Brooklyn will touch at Key West. Deliver the accompanying letter to Captain Brannasn, and desire him to communicate freely with Major Arnold, who sailed eight days ago from Boston to occupy Fort Jefferson, giving him intelligence of your movement, and the intention to re-enforce both Forts Taylor and Jefferson with a company each, hoping and believing that the latter is in the possession of the major.

The General-in-Chief, by whose direction I write, has every confidence in the zeal and ability of the officers of the First Artillery.

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant,

L. THOMAS,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.-You are to understand that you are not to attempt any reoccupation or recapture involving hostile collision, but that you are to confine yourself strictly to the defensive.

L. T.

P. S.-The guns, &amp;c., if it has been found possible to ghat any on board, are intended for Fort Jefferson.

L. THOMAS.

HEADQUARTERS FORT MONROE, VA.,

January 25, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel L. THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant-General,

Headquarters of the Army, New York City:

COLONEL: I have the honor to report that in compliance with instructions from the General-in-Chief, Captain Vogdes' company (A, First Artillery) left this post yesterday between 4 and 5 o'clock p. m. to embark on board the U. S. sloop-of-war Brooklyn. A return of Captain Vogdes' command is herewith transmitted. I also inclose copies of orders issued by me relative to Captain Vogdes' movement.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. DIMICK,

Lieutenant Colonel, Second Artillery, and Bvt. Colonel, Commanding Post.

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ORDERS Numbers 13,

HEADQUARTERS FORT MONROE, VA.,

Extract.

January 22, 1861.

In compliance with instructions from the General-in-Chief, Captain I. Vogdes, First Artillery, will embark with his company (A, First Artillery), filled to maximum by attached men from the other companies of this post, on board the sloop-of-war Brooklyn, as soon as the commanding officer of that ship reports himself in readiness to receive him. The following number of privates will be detailed from the companies at the post, to be attached to Captain Vogdes' company, viz: From Company C, First Artillery, 5; from Company B, Second Artillery, 6; from Company L, Second Artillery, 6; from Company F, Third Artillery, 6; form Company K, Third Artillery, 5; from Company D, Fourth Artillery, 6; from Company L, Fourth Artillery, 6.

The assistant commissary will furnish this command with three months' provisions, it being all that can be transported on the Brooklyn. Fifteen thousand rounds of musket-ball cartridges will be issued. Four mountain howitzers and two 12-pounder field howitzers will be taken, with such a supply of ammunition, not to exceed one hundred rounds for each gun, as can be supplied from this post and arsenal.

Bvt. Second Lieutenant Whittemore, Second Artillery, will proceed with the command.

Sealed orders received from the General-in-Chief have been furnished Captain Vogdes, to be opened when at sea.

By order of Colonel Dimick:

T. J. HAINES, Adjutant.

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 23, 1861.

Honorable J. HOLT, Secretary of War:

SIR: I proceeded to Pensacola, Fla., pursuant to orders received from the General-in-Chief, with dispatches to Commodore Armstrong, U. S. Navy, commanding the navy-yard at that place, and agreeably to your request submit the following statement respectfully to your notice:

On my arrival at Pensacola I, as soon as the light of day would permit, went to the beach (having learned on the cars when about twenty miles from the city that the yard had been surrendered, and that two vessels-the Wayandotte and Supply-of the U. S. Navy, were in the harbor) to make a signal to Captain Berryman, of the Wayandotte, in order to place in his hands the dispatches intended for Commodore Armstrong, the latter being a prisoner of war. I there frond no sign of a naval vessel, and learned that they were distant some seven miles. I then returned to the hotel, and after having arrived on the porch, where I had been only a few minutes, I was arrested by two persons, who said they were authorized by colonel Chase to arrest me. They carried me to the latter's house, where I was brought before the colonel, in the presence of some six or eight persons, and requested, or rather demanded, to surrender my dispatches, which I refused to do, as my dispatches were for Commodore Armstrong. Colonel Chase then said he would allow me to deliver them to Commodore Armstrong in the presence of Captain Randolph, then in charge of the navy-yard for the State of Florida. I proceeded to the yard in company with three troopers belonging to the State troops, and saw the commodore, who received my dispatches sealed, and they, still sealed, were demanded from him

23 R R

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0354 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

by Captain Randolph, who opened them and then forwarded them to Colonel Chase. I remained at the yard all of one day, having been placed on parole of honor not to communicate with any officer of the United States Government either at the forts or at the yard, but learned from reports and what I saw that the fort occupied by the United States had been re-enforced by some thirty or more sailors belonging to the navy-yard. The yard had been surrendered, and all the officers, with the marine guard, had been placed on their parole, and the latter had been placed on board of the Supply, to be conveyed to New York. The yard, as also Fort Barrancas, was occupied by State troops, and Fort McRee was to be occupied so soon as troops should arrive.

I left on the 15th instant, and was given by Colonel Chase the following, in order to allow me a safe passage through the country:

HEADQUARTERS PENSACOLA DISTRICT,

January 15, 1861.

Lieutenant J. S. Saunders, of the Ordnance, is under parole to me, and is free to go to any part of the country he desires; and this is his safe-conduct for that purpose.

WM. H. CHASE,

Colonel, Commanding Forces of Florida.

I have the honor to remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. S. SAUNDERS,

Brevet Second Lieutenant, Ordnance, U. S. Army.

WAR DEPARTMENT, January 26, 1861.

Lieutenant General W. SCOTT:

DEAR GENERAL: The President is much disturbed by a telegraphic dispatch which announces that the Brooklyn has sailed with two companies instead of one as was ordered. I assured him that the dispatch must be inaccurate, but would be glad to repeat the assurance on your authority.

Sincerely yours,

J. HOLT.

PENSACOLA, January 28, 1861.

To Honorable JOHN SLIDELL, or, in his absence,

Honorable R. M. HUNTER, or Governor BIGLER:

We are the Brooklyn in coming with re-enforcements for Fort Pickens. No attack on its garrison is contemplated, but, on the contrary, we desire to keep the peace, and if the present status be preserved we will guarantee that no attack will be made upon it, but if re-enforcements be attempted, resistance and a bloody conflict seem inevitable. Should the Government thus attempt to augment its force-when no possible call for it exists; when we are preserving a peaceful policy-an assault may be made upon the fort at a moment's warning. All preparations are made. Our whole force-1,700 strong-will regard it as a hostile act. Impress this upon the President, and urge that the inevitable consequence of re-enforcement under present circumstances is instant war, as peace will be preserve if no re-enforcements be attempted. If the President wants an assurance of all I say from Colonel Chase, commanding the forces, I will transmit it at once. I am determined to stave off war if possible.

Answer promptly.

S. R. MALLORY.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, January 29, 1861.

Lieutenant ADAM J. SLEMMER,

First Regiment Artillery, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens:

SIR: The dispatch of which the inclosed is a copy was transmitted to-day, and the hope is indulged that it will be received before the arrival of the Brooklyn. Lieutenant Saunders goes as the bearer of this communication in order that the Department may be assured that the dispatch has reached you safely, and has suffered no alteration in its transmission, and also that his return may afford you an opportunity of reporting fully all that has occurred in connection with your command since the transfer of your forces to Fort Pickens. In the absence of any detailed information as to the circumstances under which this movement was made, I can only commend its patriotic purpose and express the gratification felt by the Department at its success.

You are instructed to act strictly on the defensive, and avoid as far as possible a collision with the hostile troops concentrated at Pensacola and in the adjacent forts. Should you, however, be attacked you will make the best defense of which your position and resources are capable. The naval forces of the United States now at Pensacola, or which may hereafter arrive there, it is expected will cordially co-operate with you. You will observe that it is expressly understood as the basis of instructions forwarded to you that the communication between yourself and others in command at Pensacola and the Government is to be kept open and unobstructed. You will avail yourself of this provision, and report by special messenger to the Department as events may justify or require it.

In your dispatches by Lieutenant Saunders you will make known the details of the transfer of your command, the forces which you now have available for active service, the strength of your position, the character of the preparations, if any, in progress which look to an assault upon the fort, and all other matters in any manner bearing upon your ultimate safety.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. HOLT,

Secretary of war.

[Inclosure.]

WASHINGTON, January 29, 1861.

TO JAMES GLYNN, commanding the Macedonian; Captain W. S. WALKER, commanding the Brooklyn, and other naval officers in command; and Lieutenant ADAM J. SLEMMER, First Regiment Artillery, U. S. Army, commanding Fort Pickens, Pensacola, Fla.:

In consequence of the assurance received from Mr. Mallory in a telegram of yesterday to Messrs. Slidell, Hunter, and Bigler, with a request it should be laid before the President, that Fort Pickens would not be assaulted, and an offer of such an assurance to the same effect from Colonel Chase, for the purpose of avoiding a hostile collision, upon receiving satisfactory assurances from Mr. Mallory and Colonel Chase that Fort Pickens will not be attacked, you are instructed not to land the company on board the Brooklyn unless said fort shall be attacked or preparations shall be made for its attack. The provisions necessary for the supply of the fort you will land. The Brooklyn and other vessels of war on the station will remain, and you will exercise the utmost vigilance and be prepared at a moment's warning to land the company at Fort Pickens, and you and they will instantly repel an attack on the fort.

The President yesterday sent a special message to Congress commend-

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ing the Virginia resolutions of compromise. The commissioners of different States are to meet here on Monday, the 4th February, and it is important that during their session a collision of arms should be avoided, unless an attack should be made or there should be preparation for such an attack. In either event the Brooklyn and the other vessels will act promptly.


Your right, and that of the other officers in command at Pensacola, freely to communicate with the Government by special messenger, and its right in the same manner to communicate with yourself and them, will remain intact as the basis on which the present instruction is given.

J. HOLT,

Secretary of War

ISAAC TOUCEY,

Secretary of the Navy.

FORT TAYLOR, FLA., January 31, 1861.

Colonel L. THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

SIR: My company left Fortress Monroe, Va., on the 24th of the present month, and arrived at this place this morning. The Brooklyn will coal at this place, and then proceed to Fort Jefferson. As there was but a very small supply of fixed ammunition at Fort Monroe for field howitzers, I took only two 12-pounder field howitzers and four mountain howitzers. There was plenty of ammunition for these last, but I could only obtain about one hundred and fifty round for the 12-pounders.

I have communicated your instructions to Captain Brannan, in command at this place, and have been informed by him that Major Arnold arrived at Fort Jefferson on the 18th instant. Captain

Brannan furnished him with six 8-inch columbiads, ten 6-inch field guns, two 12-pounder field howitzers, 10,000 pounds of powder, 700 8-inch shells, and a small amount of ammunition for the field guns. Captain Brannan states that the supply of ammunition on hand is small and the quality bad. The citizens of this place are well disposed, and when the re-enforcements arrive it can be maintained against any force that the seceders may bring against it.

The desiccated vegetables for my command could not be had in Norfolk. Will you please have a supply sent me as soon as possible? I understand that it is impossible to obtain any fresh provisions at Pensacola.

A schooner arrived at this place yesterday, after five days from Pensacola. All of the forts except Fort Pickens were in the hands of the seceders. The strength of these forts was about 3,000 men. All was quiet when the schooner left, and the volunteers were not at all satisfied with their duties. I give you this report as it was given to me. It is probable that you may be in possession of later and more reliable information, but for fear that you may not, I here mention it in my communication.

The privates taken from the companies at Old Point to fill up my company were not regularly transferred. Will you be kind enough to order their regular transfer, as it will greatly simplify the company returns?

I am somewhat doubtful about being able to obtain a supply of fuel at Fort Pickens. However, I shall write to you as soon as I arrive, and give you all the information in my power.

Lieutenant Craven, U. S. Navy, leaves this place this evening for New York, and has kindly offered to take charge of this communica-

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tion for me. Lieutenant Craven has been very kind, and disposed to afford any assistance in his power to the troops stationed at this place.

I have the honor to be, yours, &amp;c.,

I. VOGDES,

Captain, First Artillery.

P. S.-My having just arrived from a sea voyage. I trust may be deemed a sufficient excuse for any irregularities in this communication.

PENSACOLA HARBOR, FLA., February 7, 1861.

Colonel L. THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived on this station yesterday in the U. S. steamer Brooklyn, with Company A, First Artillery. I met orders here which prevent the landing of my company or the reenforcement of the garrison of Fort Pickens at present. Yesterday I landed at Fort Pickens, assumed command of the forces on the station, inspected the defenses, and had a consultation with Lieutenant Sleemer. I am compelled to remain on board the Brooklyn for the present, and can, of course, only give general instructions to Lieutenant Slemmer. I am sorry to inform the Department that I found Fort Pickens in a very inefficient state of defense. At the time Lieutenant Slemmer removed his command to Fort Pickens there were only forty guns mounted in the fort. At present there are fifty-four in position. The accompanying sketch* indicates the position and class of guns now in position; total, fifty-four of all kinds.

Lieutenant Slemmer has with him only forty-six enlisted men for duty, and thirty ordinary seamen from the yard at this station, and the latter are entirely untrained, insubordinate, and of but little use in case of attack. There are fifty-seven embrasures that are unprovided with cannon, and are only about seven feet from the bottom of the ditch, and at present but few of them have only the common wooden shutter, presenting only a slight obstacle to an enemy. There are only very imperfect means of barricading them. Such as they are, however, I have given orders to be immediately employed.

Lieutenant Slemmer has been obliged to employ his command in getting guns into position and in barricading the embrasures. He is obliged to keep one-half of his men under arms every night, and they are nearly all exhausted with fatigue. The guns and carriages and implements are all old, and nearly unserviceable. I have made a requisition direct on the Department for the necessary supply of guns, carriages, and ammunition. The supply of this last is very inadequate. There is no ammunition for the columbiads, no cartridge bags for them, nor flannel to make any. In fact, had it been the intention of the government to place the fort in the state to render its defense impossible, it could not have been done more efficiently that it has been done. The post is without any medical officer, and if it is intended to defend it there should be an Engineer officer sent at once to the station. I trust that the Department will immediately order that the supplies requested be sent. There are no bunks either for the hospital or for the troops, and but little bedding for the sick. I request a supply may be sent. There are plenty of provisions for the present, although I should like some desiccated vegetables and supplies for the officers. I

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*Not found.

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would mention that all of the troops will be compelled to live in open casemages, and many of them will soon be on the sick-list.

The seceders have a considerable force in and about Pensacola; what number I am unable to say positively, but they are estimated at about 1,700 men. They are disorderly, and very unwilling to be controlled. Their leaders, from what I can learn, I believe are sincere in their intention to observe the armistice, but their ability to control the men under their command is very doubtful. They are engaged in erecting batteries, are making sand bags, &amp;c. They have plenty of means of transportation their troops to Saint Rosa Island, and can attack the fort on all sides at once. At present there is not one trained man to a gun within the fort. Should the enemy decide to attack, it is exceedingly probable that he might succeed in penetrating into the fort before my company could be landed or any succor could arrive from the fleet. I should therefore urge upon the Department the necessity of the fleet taking up a position such as to prevent the landing of any forces within one and a half miles of the fort; this would give time to provide for the defense of the work and the landing of the troops from the fleet; otherwise we may have the mortification and disgrace of seeing the fort taken by a body of untrained troops under our very noses.

Should the armistice be broken, my company, all the marines, and as many sailors as may raise the garrison to four hundred men should be immediately landed. All of the advantages of the present armistice are entirely on the side of the seceders. I would therefore urge upon the Department the necessity of immediately re-enforcing the garrison. The two additional companies ordered to Forts Taylor and Jefferson are not immediately required for the defense of those works. In fact, in their present state, and with the forces now in them, they would be stronger than Fort Pickens will be when garrisoned with four hundred men. Captain Meigs kindly offered his services, if necessary, to assist in the defense of this place, and I request the Department that he may be ordered to repair to this place.

Lieutenant Slemmer has done all that it has been possible to do with the small force under his command. His resolution to defend his post at all hazards evinces the highest moral courage on his part, but at the same time I must state that with any amount of vigor on the part of the assaulters his defense would have been hopeless. His resolution has probably been the means of preserving Fort Pickens from the seceders.

Yours, &c.,

I. VOGDES,

Captain, First Artillery.

P. S.-I must not be understood as recommending any violation of the existing armistice, but the collection of an amount of troops on the station as may be necessary for the defense should anything occur to rupture the present armistice.

FORT PICKENS, FLA., February --, 1861.

Honorable J. HOLDT, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have to report that since my last letter per Captain Sands, U. S. Navy, matters have assumed no different form. I am continuing the defenses of the fort, ad with my command will soon have it prepared to repel an attack. I have now seventy-eight guns mounted and ready

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for action. I will put up to-morrow three 10-inch light mortars. I have no others. The casemate embrasures are closed, some with brickwork and others with stone and pieces of wood. These will be strengthened as time permits. I am making canister for some of my barbette guns, there being none in the fort. An abatis of brush is being placed about the exposed points of attack. I have two 10-inch columbiads mounted if necessary. All work has been stopped on these batteries, according to the promise of Colonel Chase. I do not think there are more than four hundred State troops occupying the fort and barracks opposite. Fort McRee is occupied, but no guns mounted to my knowledge.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding Post.

FORT PICKENS, FLA., February 12, 1861.

Honorable J. HOLT, Secretary of War:

SIR: Since the departure of Lieutenant Gilman as special messenger for Washington nothing of special interest has transpired. I am continuing the defenses, mounting guns on the ramparts, and blocking up the casemate embrasures. Having observed a battery in course of erection upon which they were mounting heavy guns, 8-inch columbiads, and as this battery would rake two bastions and the connecting curtains of this fort, I addressed the following no to to Colonel Chase:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., February 11, 1861.

Colonel WM. H. CHASE, Commanding the Forces of Florida:

SIR: I observe you are erecting and arming a battery west of the light-house. I deem it my duty to protest against its further continuance, and also of all batteries which may bear on Fort Pickens.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0360 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

To which I received the following satisfactory reply:

HEADQUARTERS PENSACOLA DISTRICT,

February 12, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER, Commanding Fort Pickens:

SIR: I have this moment received your letter of the 11th instant. I am determined to make good the assurances that I have given, that no attack shall be made on fort Pickens, and to discontinue all preparations for one, as stated in my letter to Captain S. Barron, dated January 29. I do not consider the erection of batteries on this side as aiming at an attack on Fort Pickens; but, desiring to avoid all actual or implied preparations for an attack, I will give orders for the discontinuance of the erection of the battery.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. CHASE,

Colonel, Commanding Forces of Florida, &amp;c.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

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A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, Firs Artillery.

U. S. STEAMER BROOKLYN,

Pensacola Harbor, Fla., March 17, 1861.

Colonel L. THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant-General:

SIR: On the 24th of last January I left Fort Monroe, Va., with sealed orders from the headquarters of the Army, which assigned me to the command of the forts in this harbor. On my arrival at this station I met a telegraphic dispatch from the Secretary of War which instructed the commander of the Brooklyn not to land my company for the present. A few days since I requested a copy of the post return from Lieutenant Slemmer in order to make a monthly return of the whole command. He declines furnishing me with it, as he holds that the telegraphic dispatch superseded my orders, and of course deprived me of the whole command. He declines furnishing me with it, as he holds that the telegraphic dispatch superseded by an officer junior to myself both in grade and rank, and that it would have at least informed me directly of the fact if such had been its intention.

I need not point out to you how important in the present critical state of affairs it is to have a perfect unity of command. Should anything occur that may render it necessary that my company should be landed, it is necessary that some previous arrangements should be made for its

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reception and distribution of the whole command. It is unnecessary for me to state that such arrangements cannot be made by Lieutenant Slemmer, nor can I for one moment consent to his dispensing of either myself or my command. Besides which, until Lieutenant Slemmer declined sending me the return, I had no idea that he disputed my right to command, and I had made arrangements with Captain Admas, commanding the naval forces on this station, to land a force of marines and sailors, which, with my company and the troops now in the fort, will raise the command to five hundred men. This force, in my opinion, will be sufficient to hold Fort Pickens against any force that may attempt to carry it by escalate. There is, however, a great deficiency both of ammunition and supplies for so large a command. The medical supplies are very limited. There are no bunks either for the hospital nor for the men. The casemates are open, and have only brick floors. At present the men are in the officers' quarters, but these will be required for the officers, and would besides be entirely inadequate to accommodate so large a command. To expose the men to sleep on the damp brick floors, exposed as they would be to the inclemency of the weather, would soon place most of them on the sick-report.

It is important that requisitions should be made for medicines and quartermaster's supplies of lumber, bunks, and clothing for the command. I directed the attending surgeon and the acting assistant quartermaster to make the necessary requisitions, but whether they have done so or not I cannot say, as they have not been submitted to me.

I think that the above statement will satisfy you as to the importance of placing things upon such a footing as may settle at once the right to command. I have not deemed it judicious to take the course with Lieutenant Slemmer which I should have taken at any other time, but I think I have said sufficient to satisfy you that it is important that all ambiguity as to my right to command should be at once removed. I therefore ask that instructions may at once be given for me to at once take up my residence within the fort, which the authorities now seem to think is contrary to the agreement entered into.

I deem it important that the commissary and quartermaster's department at this post should be supplied with money, as it is impossible to obtain supplies without it.

Some batteries have been erected by the seceders between the navy-yard and fort Barrancas, on the shore. These may offer a very serious obstacle to the ships-of-war entering the harbor. The troops, however, I think can be safely landed on Saint Rose Island, and enter the fort without encountering any serious impediment. May I request that you will give your early attention to the above lease, and let me know your decision?

Yours, &amp;c.,

I VOGDES,

Captain, First Artillery.
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FORT PICKENS, FLA., March 18, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel L. THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army:

SIR: I have the honor to report that since my last report nothing has happened to disturb the peaceable relations existing between the United States forces and those opposing us. I have placed the fort in condition for defense as well as the means in my power would permit.

The contractor has refused to furnish beef, alleging that he is

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without funds for purchasing cattle. The United States is indebted to him for three months' supply.

If the intention of the Department is to place re-enforcements in the fort, I would recommend that subsistence stores be sent immediately.

On the morning of the 12th instant four negroes (runaways) came to the fort, entertaining the idea that we were placed here to protect them and grant them their freedom. I did what I could to teach them the contrary. In the afternoon I took them to Pensacola and delivered them to the city marshal, to be returned to their owners. That same night four more made their appearance. They were also turned over to the authorities next morning.

On the evening of the 12th I received this communication:

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS OF CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, Fla., March 13, 1861.

To the U. S. OFFICER, commanding Fort Pickens, Fla.:

SIR: The bearer of this communication, Captain R. C. Wood, Army of the Confederate States, waits upon you in my behalf with the purpose of obtaining information necessary to enable me to understand our relative positions. He will communicate to you my views, and receive such reply as you may be pleased to make.

I have the honor to be your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

As I was absent at Pensacola delivering up the negroes, I did not see Captain Wood. I made the following answer, accompanying it with copies of the agreement entered into by Colonel Chase and the War Department, with copies of such other papers as would enable the general to understand our positions:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., March 13, 1861.

General BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding the forces, &amp;c., near Pensacola, Fla.:

SIR: Your communication of this date reached this post during my absence. I have the honor to send you a copy of the agreement entered into between Colonel Chase, Senator Mallory, and the War and Navy Departments, with such other communications as may enable you to understand our relative positions. Please let me know as soon as convenient whether you will consider the agreement binding on your part or not.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

To which I received the following reply:

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS OF CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, Fla., March 13, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER, Commanding Fort Pickens:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge your communication of this date with its inclosure. In announcing to you my intention to conform strictly to the spirit of the agreement entered into by colonel Chase, I beg to suggest to you that the erection of a battery on Saint Roas Island bearing directly on our navy-yard is, in my view, directly in conflict with the spirit of the agreement. The erection of the works on this side bearing on the channel cannot, I conceive, be taken as a menace against Fort Pickens, and the act seems to me fully justified as a means of defense, and especially so under the threats of the new administration.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

The battery which the general mentions has no reality, and I so requested his aid, Lieutenant Gaines, to inform him.

On the 15th I made the following answer:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., March 15, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding Forces C. S., near Pensacola, Fla.:

SIR: I placed yesterday your communication of the 13th instant before the commander of the squadron off the labor. This will account for the delay in announcing

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to you that the assurances given are perfectly satisfactory. Of the erection of the batteries on either side, I have only to say that our views on that point are directly opposite.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

U. S. STEAMER BROOKLYN, March 21, 1861.

[General SCOTT:]

GENERAL: I wrote to you a few days since asking you to decide the subject of command on this station. Since then Lieutenant Gilman has arrived. I hope, however, that you will give my communication a careful consideration, and will see the necessity of establishing a unity of command on the station. As I mentioned in my communication, it is indispensable that there should be a perfect understanding between the troops and the naval forces, and the positions to be occupied beforehand be fully determined upon. How this can be done when the troops will have to land only when the fort is attacked I am unable to see. It cannot be done unless Lieutenant Slemmer is to be allowed to give me orders and to assign me a position, and to that I never will submit. I will endeavor to perform my duty, I trust, on all occasions, but I never will submit to be commended, directly or indirectly, by my junior. Moreover, when I enter the fort become its commander, and will be held responsible for its defense. This will be, probably, when the enemy is already before its walls, and when I must, of course, be ignorant of the dispositions which Lieutenant Slemmer has made for its defense. How am I to be held accountable for its defense when I have not the command until the last moment? I trust, general, that you will see at once the false position in which I am placed, and at once relieve me from it. If not, I enter my protest against being in any way held accountable for what may take place.

Until within a few days the naval and military forces have been supplied with fresh provisions from Warrington and Pensacola, but General Bragg has issued an order prohibiting any supplies being furnished to us, and prohibits the citizens communicating with us, except by special permission.

The conditions of the agreement entered into by the late Government and Major Chase and Senator Mallory give every advantage to the seceders, yet some of them deny the right of those two gentlemen to make it. They are not required to give any notice of its abrogation, and may attack the fort without a moment's notice, and under the most favorable circumstances it will be impossible to send any assistance to the fort from the ships in less time than the hours. Should there be the least panic among the troops within the fort it would probably be taken. There are about forty guns mounted, and the garrison is about one man

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to a gun. They could only make a single discharge, and would not probably be able to reload the guns. Should those on any of the fronts be discharged too soon, that front would be left without any defense. Moreover, the garrison is kept constantly harassed, and is almost every night obliged to be under arms, from fear of attack. With the present garrison, my company, and one hundred marines, which we could obtain from the fleet, I think it would be perfectly secure from assault.

Our means of communication with the Government are very uncertain. We do not feel certain that our communications have reached the Department, nor do we know whether the Department's messenger to us may not have been intercepted. Of course, we do not know how we are expected to act. I would suggest that a small steamer should ply between here and Havana, so as to communicate with the mail steamer from New York at that port. The supplies at the fort are getting low, and those of that naval forces are still lower. These last have not ten days' supply.

The Brooklyn leaves to-morrow for Key West or Havana in order to obtain a supply. Should she not succeed, the naval forces will have to be withdrawn. The Brooklyn has by far the most efficient battery of any of thaw ships on the station, and is besides probably the only vessel that could take up a position to effectively cover our landing. It is much to be regretted that she should be withdrawn at this juncture.

My company is to be transferred to the frigate Sabine.

Major Tower, of the Engineers, arrived on the 19th, but under the existing arrangement cannot reside within the fort. Even was he there, not having any force to labor, he could not do much. I have endeavored to lay before you a true statement of the disadvantageous position in which we are placed, and I trust that so fair as it can be done it will be remedied. Whatever may be done, I trust that we will be soldiers enough to do all that lies in our power to uphold the honor of our country's flag, and prevent its forts from being seized by those in rebellion against its authority.

Yours, truly,

I. VOGDES,

Captain, First Artillery.

HEADQUARTERS FORT TAYLOR, FLA.,

March 27, 1861.

T. A. M. CRAVEN,

Lieutenant Commanding U. S. Steamer Crusader, Harbor of Key West:

SIR: In reference to our conversation this morning and the letter shown by you to myself, and with the desire that we may act together should an occasion occur, I deem it advisable to state that this fort is fully garrisoned with veteran soldiers, and I believe it is entirely within my paver to control this island and to prevent a lodgment thereon by any hostile force whatsoever; further, that I intend to treat any attempt to do so as an overt act of war, to be met at its initiation. I have no specific instructions from the War Department, but the course of my duty is clear, and I mean to follow it.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

WM. H. FRENCH,

Brevet Major, First Artillery, Commanding.
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FORT PICKENS, FLA., March 30, 1861.

The ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters of the Army:

SIR: I have the honor to report that matters have not assumed a hostile attitude. Everything appears quiet. Troops are being quietly concentrate ed and preparations made for an immediate movement should the present amicable agreement be interrupted. From all I can learn, there are not nearly one thousand enlisted men occupying the various posts and batteries in the vicinity and five thousand expected. Since my last report the redoubt between Fort Barrancas and the bayou has been occupied and made an ordnance depot. Nearly all the powder has been transferred from the navy-yard to that post. The troops are organized and apparently under good discipline, a marked difference existing between them and the volunteers who first occupied these positions. Guns are being mounted at Fort McRee. The light-house battery had four 8-inch columbiads which bear directly on this work. Another battery of four 8-inch columbiads is situated to the east and front of the naval hospital. Report says that another battery has been constructed at the old light-house. I cannot distinguish any signs of it, however. If made, it is effectually masked.

Fort Barrancas is fully armed. Guns are mounted in the navy-yard for its protection. These works are being strengthened and completed each day, and soon the position will be one which will be very difficult to reoccupy, and one which will prove a serious annoyance to this post. Shot and shells can be thrown from each of these works into Fort Pickens. I have protested against the prosecution of these works, but have continued them ont eh plea of being for defensive purposes. With one or two batteries established on Santa Rosa Island, Fort Pickens would be in almost as bad a position as Fort Sumter. Fort McRee and these batteries would be able to drive off any shipping and prevent the introduction of re-enforcements and provisions. I have thus far succeeded in preventing any lodgment on the island, and will consider any such movement a breach of the agreement.

It is very necessary that we should be informed as to passing events, and would, therefore, most respectfully call the attention of the Commanding General to the fact that form the 23rd February until the 29th March no important communication has been received. We receive nothing but from the sufferance of the opposing forces, which at any moment may be stopped should anything occur contrary to their desires. I am now left without an officer, but will request the transfer of Lieutenant Langdon to the fort during the absence of Lieutenant Gilman.

Fresh provisions are now denied us. If it is the intention of the Government to hold his fort, I would most respectfully suggest that the stores and supplies necessary for the effective defense of the work be forwarded immediately, with definite instructions as to their being landed.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

Washington, April 1, 1861.

Bvt. Colonel HARVEY BROWN,

U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: You have been designated to take command of an expedition to re-enforce and hold Fort Pickens, in the harbor of Pensacola. You will

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proceed with the least possible delay to that place, and you will assume command of all the land forces of the United States within the limits of the State of Florida. You will proceed to New York, where steam transportation for four companies will be engaged, and, putting on board such supplies as you can ship, without delay proceed at once to your destination. The engineer company of Sappers and Miners; Brevet Major Hunt's Company M, Second Artillery; Captain John's Company C, Third Infantry; Captain Clitz's Company E, Third Infantry, will embark with you in the first steamer. Other troops and full supplies will be sent after you as soon as possible.

Captain Meigs will accompany you as engineer, and will remain with you until you are established in Fort Pickens, when he will return to resume his duties in this city. The other members of your staff will be Asst. Surg. John Campbell, medical staff; Captain Ruffus Ingalls, assistant quartermaster; Captain Henry F. Clarke, assistant commissary of subsistence; Bvt. Captain George L. Hartsuff, assistant adjutant-general; and First Lieutenant George T. Balch, ordnance officer.

The object and destination of this expedition will be communicated to no one to whom lit is not already known. The naval officers in the Gulf will be instructed to co-operate with you, and to afford every facility in their power for the accomplishment of the object of the expedition, which is the security of Fort Pickens against all attack, foreign and domestic. Should a shot be fired at you, you will defend yourself and your expedition at whatever hazard, and, if needful for such defense, inflict upon the assailants all the damage in your power within the range of your guns.

Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes, military secretary, will be authorized to give all necessary orders, and to call upon the staff department for every requisite material and transportation, and other steamers will follow that on which you embark, to carry re-enforcements, supplies, and provisions for the garrison of Fort Pickens for six months. Captain Barry's battery will follow as soon as a vessel can be fitted for its transportation. Two or three foot companies will embark at the same time with the battery. All the companies will be filled up to the maximum standard, those to embark first from the recruits in the harbor of New York. The other companies will be filled, if practicable, with instructed soldiers.

You will make Fort Jefferson your main depot and base of operations. You will be careful not to reduce too much the means of the fortresses in the Florida Reef, as they are deemed of greater importance than even Fort Pickens. The naval officers in the Gulf will be instructed to co-operate with you in every way, in order to insure the safety of Fort Pickens, Fort Jefferson, and Fort Taylor. You will freely communicate with them for this end, and will exhibit to them the authority of the President herewith.

The President directs that you be assigned to duty from this date according to your brevet rank in the Army.

With great confidence in your judgment, zeal, and intelligence, I remain, respectfully,

WINFIELD SCOTT.

APRIL 2, 1861.

Approved:

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
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[Inclosure.]

EXECUTIVE MANSION, April 1, 1861.

All officers of the Army and Navy, to whom this order may be exhibited, will by every means in their power the expedition under the command of Colonel Harvey Brown, supplying him with men and material and co-operating with him as he may desire.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

WILMINGTON, N. C., April 2, 1861.

General JOS. G. TOTTEN, Chief Engineer, Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I have the honor to report my return from Fort Clinch, and my performance of the duty assigned to me by your order of the 18th ultimo, so far as I have been able to perform it.

I have paid off all the employes mentioned in Captain Whiting's letter of the 8th ultimo, and discharged all not before discharged except the fort keep, Mr. J. A. Walker, and two laborers. I thought it best to retain the services of these two laborers, party because the sand embankments inside the fort require constant attention, and partly because I was not able to sell any of the public property.

After I had paid off the accounts, Colonel Butler, commanding the Florida militia at Fernandina, very politely informed me that the authorities of that State had virtually taken possession of Fort Clinch, and that any sale of its property by the United States would be regarded as illegal, and that he thought it his duty to resist such sale if necessary. After some conversation, finding myself unable to change his resolution, I was, of course, compelled to yield.

The State of Florida, or the Confederate States, will probably soon take formal possession of Fort Clinch.

I have told Mr. Walker that while things remain as they are he may regard himself and hit two assistants as in the service of the United States, at least until he shall be officially informed to the contrary, but that whenever the property or the fort shall be actually seized the United States will be no longer responsible for services.

There are some small accounts for supplies and for services still unpaid. As soon as I receive them I will forward them to the Department for your decision.

Respectfully,

D. P. WOODBURY,

Captain, Engineers.

[Indorsement.]

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, April 8, 1861.

Respectfully referred to the honorable Secretary of War for his instructions as to the course to be pursued in regard to the care of the Government property at Fort Clinch.

It will be perceived from the within report that while this property is nominally in the possession of the United States, it is actually under the control of the Florida authorities, as is shown by their refusal to permit the sale of the same.

Should the United States, therefore, continue its expenditures for the care of the fort and the property thereat? Unless the Government de-

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signs taking actual possession of and holding this work and property, I would recommend their being at once abandoned.

J. G. TOTTEN,

Brevet Brigadier-General, and Colonel Engineers.

APRIL 10, 1861.

Let the work cease for the present.

SIMON CAMERON,

Secretary of War.

APRIL 3, 1861.

[For Totten to Secretary Cameron in reference to Forts Sumter and Pickens, see p. 232.]

U. S. TRANSPORT ATLANTIC,

[New York,] April 6, 1861-2 1/2 p. m.

Honorable WM. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

DEAR SIR: By great exertions, within less than six days from the time the subject was broached in the office of the President, a war steamer sails from this port; and the Atlantic, built under contract to be at the service of the United States in case of war, will follow this afternoon with 500 troops, of which one company is sappers and miners, one a mounted battery. The Illinois will follow on Monday with the stores which the Atlantic could not hold.

While the mere throwing of a few men into Fort Pickens may seem a small operation, the opening of a campaign is a great one.

Unless this moment is supported by ample supplies and followed up by the Navy it will be a failure. This is the beginning of the war which every statesman and soldier has foreseen since the passage of the South Carolina ordinance of secession. You will find the Army and the navy clogged at the head with men, excellent patriotic men, men who were soldiers and sailors forty years ago, but who now merely keep active men out of the places in which they could serve the country.

If you call out volunteers you have no general to command. The general born, not made, is yet to be found who is to govern the great army which is to save the country, if saved it can be. Colonel Keyes has shown intelligence, zeal, activity, and I look for a high future for him.

England took six months to get a soldier to the Crimea. We were from May to September in getting General Taylor before Monterey. Let us be supported; we got to serve our country, and our country should not neglect us or leave us to be strangled in tape, however red.

Respectfully,

M. C. MEIGS.

U. S. TROOP-SHIP ATLANTIC,

Lat. 32^13', Long. 74^49'15'', April 10, 1861.

Honorable WM. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:

DEAR SIR: We except to touch at Key West, and will be able to set things in order there and give the first check to the secession movement by firmly establishing the authority of the United States in that most ungrateful island and city. Thence we propose to send dispatches under cover to you. The officers will write to their friends,

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understanding that the package will not be broken until after the public has notice through the newspapers of our success or defeat. Our object is yet unknown on board, and if I read the papers of the eve of our departure aright our secret is still a secret in New York. No communication with the shore, however, will be allowed.

Your dispatch arrived as I was on my away to the Atlantic, just before the hour at which she was to sail, and two or three hours after that appointed for the Powhatan. When the arrow has sped from the bow it may glance aside, but who shall reclaim it before its flight is finished?

A violent gale compelled us to lay head to wind for twenty-four hours. We ran one hundred miles out of our course. The Powhatan having taken this gale earlier may have got through it with less delay, so that it is not now likely that we will overtake her. She had orders to call off Key West, and by boat or signal ascertain whether we had passed. It is important that she should reach the port before us.

Permit me to urge the importance of the purchase of these Collins steamers. Britain has already taken the first, the Adriatic. Jeff. Davis or the United States may take them. They were build under contract subject to be taken at a valuation if needed for war. This ship, the Atlantic, cost &amp;750,000. We have chartered her at $2,000 per day for thirty days, with the privilege, at the end of thirty days, of retaining her at that pierce, giving her up, or purchasing by the United States at $350,000, one-half her cost. During the height of the gale she showed no signs of weakness, rode easily, without labor, and the very line of cabin-lights reflected from a mirror, which doubles all distortions, was straight and true. This too with forty tons of horses in place of port guns on her bow, and thirty tons of hay and stores on the after-hurricane deck. The weight of 10-inch pivot guns would not therefore hurt her. Thus far we have lost but one horse, exhausted by struggling after falling during the gale.

The Baltic I hope is chartered on terms like those of the Atlantic. Both south belong to the United States. British agents, if not Southern envoys, are after them. Had we been on board a vessel less scrunch and seaworthy not a horse would have been seen on deck and the ship might have shared the fate of the San Francisco.

The dispatch and the secrecy with which this expedition has been fitted out will strike terror into the ranks of rebellion. All New York saw, all the United States knew, that the Atlantic was filling with stores and troops. But now this nameless vessel, her name is painted out, speeds out of the track of commerce to an unknown destination. Mysterious, unseen, where will the powerful bolt fall? What thousands of men, spending the means of the Confederate States, vainly beat the air amid the swamps of the southern coast, and, filling the dank forts, curse secession and the mosquitoes!

Buy all the steamships, fill them with troops and stores, start them on such mysterious errands, and Mr. Memminger will need more loans and South Carolina herself will grow sick of rebellion.

God promised to send before his chosen people and advance-guard of hornets. Our constant allies are the more efficient mosquitoes and sand-flies. At this time the republic has need of all her sons, of all their knowledge, zeal, and courage.

Major Hunt is with us, somewhat depressed at going into the field without his horses. His battery of Napoleon guns, probably the best field guns in our service, is to follow in the Illinois; but the traitor Twiggs surrendered his horses to the rebels of Texas, and the company

24 R R

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of well-trained artillerists finds itself, after eight years of practice in that highest and most efficient arm, the light artillery, going into active service as footmen. They, too, feel, the change deeply.

I inclose a memorandum which Major Hunt has written at my suggestion, and I bespeak your influence to see that he is supplied with horses. If, in the end, this be not found the best field for the campaign-and I am not yet prepared to advise on this point-then these trained men and officers, these instructed soldiers, may be easily transferred to another field and replaced by some company whose training will suit the duties to be performed at our destination. The major served through the Mexican war in Duncan's famous battery, was brevetted for Churubusco, again for Chapultepec and the City of Mexico, and commanded the battery at MoliNumbers These are historic names. Such an officer should be encouraged, promoted, translated to that sphere to which his peculiar training and skill will be most useful to his country. I have been gratified, even surprised, at the soldierly and loyal spirit with which these officers go upon this expedition. Whether our aim be Charleston, Savannah, Dominica, Pensacola, Mobile, Key West, Louisiana, or Texas, they do not know, but with cheerful trust in the Government they rely upon its wisdom and patriotism, and not a sad brow or a complaining spirits is on board. This loyal and devotion is beautiful. It promises for the country, if properly appreciated and encouraged, a most efficient army, animated by hope and patriotism. From such men, and not from the pillows used to bolster up political reputations, should the colonels of your new regiments be selected. Such men will raise regiments at their call. The soil will sprout armed men. They can train them into soldiers who will save the country, if arms can save it. All patriots should look to these things. On the spirit and loyalty of your officers depends the success of your armies.

I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. C. MEIG,

Captain of Engineers.

[Inclosure.]

Memorandum for Captain Meigs.

My battery dismounted in consequence of Twiggs' treason, left its horses at Fort Brown, Tex. The guns, light 12-pounders (the new canon-busier of Louis Napoleon), are the only ones in our service of that kind. They were brought off by the company in spite of extraordinary efforts on the part of Texans to get possession of them. Their firing is very accurate, and with equal mobility they have much greater power then the 6-pounder. Each is perfectly adapted ot the use of all the projectiles known in the service-shot, shell, spherical case, and canister. The fire of one portion of the battery is therefore never sacrificed to that of another, as so often happens in ordinary batteries, where the fire of the gun must often be sacrificed tot hat of the howitzer, and vice versa.

The men of the company are well instructed both as drivers and cannoneers, a work requiring time and patience, and it is of great importance that the knowledge they have acquired by long training should not be lost to the service, for neither drivers nor cannoneers can be improvised when wanted. The battery has with it its forge, battery-wagons, harness, &amp;c., and requires only horses to make it thoroughly efficient. These ought to be supplied at once, as they would convert a comparatively inefficient, because uninstructed, infantry company into an efficient field battery.
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The number of horses required is eighty; for quality and description see page 46, Artillery Tactic. A few good saddle-horses for officers should be sent in addition, say eight or ten.

HENRY J. HUNT,

Brevet Major, Captain Second Artillery,

Commanding Light Battery M.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

April 13, 1861.

Bvt. Major W. H. FRENCH,

Commanding Fort Taylor, Key West:

SIR: You will use the forces of your command, if need be, for the protection of the officers and citizens of the United States on this island in the discharge of their public duties, and the pursuit of their legitimate private occupations. You will not permit on the island any person to exercise any office or authority inconsistent with the laws and Constitution of the United States, and will, if necessary, prevent any such exercise by force of arms. If unhappily rebellion or insurrection should actually exist at any time, you will then publish a proclamation, with which you will be furnished, suspending the writ of habeas corpus, and will immediately remove from the island all dangerous or suspected persons. You will before publishing this proclamation take the advice of the United States judge and attorney on its necessity and expediency (its legality has been determined by higher authority), and receive with deference their opinion, giving them that consideration and weight to which their patriotism and legal knowledge entitle them. In exercising the authority here vested in you the greatest conciliation and forbearance mush be observed, that while the duty be rigidly performed it may always be done in a spirit of conciliation and kindness.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

(Not all pages posted in this section, only those that reflect the coming conflict)

[ Edited Fri Apr 15 2016, 06:52PM ]
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gpthelastrebel
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FORT PICKENS RE-ENFORCED


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U. S. FRIGATE SABINE,

Off Pensacola, April 14, 1861.

Honorable GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that immediately on the receipt of your order by Lieutenant Worden, on the 12th instant, I prepared to re-enforce Fort Pickens. It was successfully performed, on the same night, by landing the troops under Captain Vogdes, and the marines of the squadron under Lieutenant [John C.] Cash. No opposition was made, nor do I believe the movement was known on shore until it was accomplished.

A strong party of officers and seamen were sent to assist in case of resistance, who afterwards returned to their ships. The marines remained in the fort, at the request of Captain Vogdes, a copy of which I inclose.* The whole expedition was under the charge of Commander Charles H. Poor, assisted by Lieutenant [Albert N.] Smith, of the brooklyn, Lieutenants [R. F. R.] Lewis and [L. H.] Newman, of the Sabine, and Lieutenant [G. E.] Belknap, of the St. Louis; and it is highly creditable to these officers that this service was performed without accident or disorder under unfavorable circumstances. The Brooklyn, Captain [W. S.] Walker, and the Wayandotte, Lieutenant Commanding [J. R. M.] Mullany, were very skillfully managed. They carried the landing party to the designated spot with accuracy in spite of the darkness of the night, and not having the light-house to guide them, the light having been extinguished early in the evening.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. A. ADAMS,

Captain, Senior Officer Present.

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FORT PICKENS, FLA., April 16, 1861.

To the ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Department of the East:

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the 14th instant it was reported to me that a small boat had landed at the wharf with a flag of truce, and that the bearer solicited an interview with the commanding officer of the post. I requested Lieutenant Slemmer, of the First Artillery, to accompany me, and repaired to the wharf. On my arrival the gentleman bearing the flag informed me that he was the bearer of a message from General Bragg, and that he was his adjutant-general. He then inquired whether I was the commanding officer of the fort. I replied that I was. He then stated that he was directed by General Bragg to inquire what the armistice in respect to re-enforcing Fort Pickens had been violated by throwing re-enforcements into it. I replied that I had never been a party to any armistice; that I had been sent by the general Government to take command of the post, and had entered under the orders of the General Government. He then addressed himself to Lieutenant Slemmer, and stated that he was directed to inquire of the former commanding officer why the armistice had been violated, to which Lieutenant Slemmer replied that he always obeyed the orders of his superiors. This ended our official interview. After exchanging the usual civilities customary among gentleman previously acquainted, we parted, and Colonel Wood left the post. I would mention that Lieutenant Ingraham, formerly of the Marine corps, was present during the interview as a witness on the part of Colonel Wood, and that Lieutenant Slemmer, at my request, performed the same duty on my part.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. VOGDES,

Captain, First Artillery, Commanding Fort Pickens.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, April 18, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel E. D. KEYES,

Secretary to the General-in-Chief, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: We arrived off this place on the evening of the 17th instant, having encountered a heavy norther on the passage from Tortugas. I immediately sought and obtained an interview with Captain Adams, commanding the naval forces here, who promised me every assistance in his power, and boats to land my command. I decided to land with a part of my force without delay, and while preparing to land, signal rockets from Fort Pickens, indicating an expected attack hastened our departure. I got in the fort at 2 o'clock yesterday morning with the Sappers and Miners and a part of Clitz's company. Our arrival probably prevented the contemplated attack. I found in the fort, besides the two companies of artillery, a detachment of one hundred marines and sailors. The greater portion of them I have sent back to the ships. In the course of yesterday and to-day all the troops and horses have landed, and a very small portion of stores, the landing of which in the surf is a slow operation.

In going over the fort and examining its condition, the miserable state of its armament, the small supply of ammunition and stores, I am almost discouraged at the task before me. The mounted guns are few in number-two 10-inch shell guns, four 8-inch howitzers, seventeen 32-pounders,

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and seven 18 and eleven 12 pounders. The guns are generally indifferent, and the carriages old and not to be depended on.

I have not been able to ascertain the exact force of the secessionists, but so far as I can learn their forces in nearly 7,000 men. Their forts are fully armed, Fort McRee having, it is said, one hundred heavy guns. Fort Barrancas' guns are not so heavy, and they have, besides, several heavy batteries, so that take possession of Sant Rosa, which with my force I cannot prevent, they can erect batteries so as to enfilade every face.

I cannot too strongly urge the importance of the heavy rifled guns, with their carriages, for which I have estimates, sent without a moment's delay, though how we are to get them ashore in the face of an enemy I cannot now say.

I am now impressed with my inability to return, even moderately, a fire for any considerable time, and the entrance of the Powhatan will certainly cause a collision for which I am unprepared. I have urged Captain Meigs to defer his entrance until we are better prepared. A collision at this moment would embarrass me exceedingly in unloading the ship and getting my supplies ashore, and we are so short of all necessaries that they are of the first importance. In the face of the heavy batteries she will have to encounter, I very much doubt the possibility of the Powhatan getting in by daylight, though I may be mistaken. The odds against her are fearful.

I thought it advisable to inform the secession general of the position in which I stand, so I sent to him a flag of truce with the letter marked A, to which he returned no answer, only remarking to the bearer, Captain Vogdes, that in re-enforcing this fort I had broken the truce.

It is reported to me that until the day Captain Vogdes entered the fort communication by mail was allowed, they inspecting the letters, and forwarding such as they pleased and retaining the others; but since then no letters are forwarded either to or from this post. The post-office should be transferred to this place, and an officer appointed postmaster.

I have my whole force employed in mounting guns, making roads, preparing quarters, and unloading the steamer. Many traverses are indispensably necessary for the protection of the men and guns in case of a bombardment, and I have not been able for want of tools and sand bags even to commence them. In two days I think I shall be able to make a respectable defense against the combined force of the forts and batteries, and to inflict more injury than I shall receive.

I found affairs in Key West tending to so favorable an issue that a part of the forces there may be spared. I have, therefore, ordered two companies of infantry to proceed in the Crusader, which Captain Adams has kindly authorized me to use, to this post. When they arrive and those in the Illinois, I shall be so strong as to defy the taking of this fort by assault, whatever may be the force brought against it. I think these companies should be replaced by two others if they can be spared.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0380 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.
Inclosure A.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, Fla., April 17, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG,

Commanding Troops of Confederate States near Pensacola, Fla.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I have arrived at this post, and that I shall, unless assailed, act only on the defensive, and make only such disposition of my forces as is necessary to protect them from any enemy, foreign or domestic. I have also to inform you that no movement of the troops of my command or of United States vessels in this vicinity will have any other than a defensive object, unless we shall unhappily be compelled to act offensively, repelling aggression against the flag, persons, or property of our country.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

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U. S. STEAMSHIP POWHATAN, OFF PENSACOLA,

April 18, 1861.

Colonel H. BROWN, U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Pickens, Florida:

DEAR SIR: In looking carefully over the orders of the President in relation to my entering the harbor, I find them so imperative that they leave no margin for any contingency that may arise. Your letter to Captain Meigs, of the 13th, requesting me not to who in and draw the fire on you before you had time to prepare, is quite sufficient to satisfy me that any such course on my part would be very indiscreet, but, to satisfy the authorities in Washington, I would be obliged to you if you would address me a little more fully on the subject, and stare as near as you can your actual condition, and the time required to make up deficiencies. If you think that in two days' time you will be ready for me to make the attempt, please notify me, for after that time I shall have to run the gauntlet by moonlight, which would no doubt be a good time for an exhibition, but darkness would suit better for a piece of strategy. I know that Ia m here to give you aid and comfort, and keep any of the enemy from crossing over in boats on the inside, but while I will do all I can in the way of aid, I cannot do much in cutting off boats where I now am. Will you please make such suggestions as your good sense will dictate, and I will endeavor to follow them as near as I can.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DAVID D. PORTER,

U. S. Navy.

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Union Troops at Pensacola

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U. S. TROOP-SHIP ATLANTIC,

Off Santa Rosa, April 20, 1861.

Colonel H. BROWN, Commanding Department of Florida:

DEAR COLONEL: If my estimate is correct you have now about 690 men inside Fort Pickens. The Illinois is here with two companies, say

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168. The Saint Louis has gone to order up two companies of infantry from Key West, say 154. You have then here 858; coming up, 154; total, 1,012. The Sabine crew is 450; Powhatan, 300; Brooklyn, 300; Wyandotte, 75; total, 1,125. Crew of the Saint Louis, 250; Crusader, 100; MInnesota, 600; total, 950. Total force to be concentrated about Fort Pickens subject to your orders, 3,087.

The soldiers will have six months' supplies as soon as the Illinois is discharged. Now, what to do with them? I agree with you in regard to the great importance of avoiding everything that will bring on a collision as long as possible. The policy of the Government I understand to be to hold, occupy, and possess what we now have, and not to produce collision if it can be avoided; in no case to fire the first hostile gun. The attack upon Fort Pickens must be made by bombardment or cannonade. I believe that it is impossible to land a force upon this island in face of the batteries of the Powhatan, Brooklyn, and Wyandotte, properly placed, without exposing it t sudden and swift destruction. If your men and means are all concentrated in Fort Pickens, every shell which enters the fort will tell its tale of destruction. To concentrate all these appears to me to be like putting the depot of a besieging army in their cachet and breaching batteries. I think that the true mode of treating is that which regulates the advance batteries of a siege.

The sand hills of Santa Rosa afford good, well-protected bayous or approaches, along which material, men, horses, and artillery can be moved, properly protected from all direct and enfilading fire by works of very small extent, needed only to close a few gaps and to cut through a few ridges. An approach should be constructed across the open space at the foot of the glaces, and I think that a gallery through the glaces into the ditch may be advisable. I think that a gateway might be cut with advantage through the south entrance. I save the hauling of material and the hoisting of gun carriages over the ramparts. This gate, too, not being exposed to the direct fire of the opposing batteries, will not attempt an insubordinate, undisciplined volunteer to fire the shot which will open the war.

The three 10-inch mortars brought from Key West and some other pieces of artillery I think might be well placed in battery outside the fort. The division of these batteries will divide the enemy's fire, and thus lessen its destructive effect. The mortars, being reserved to throw out light and fire balls from the fort, may be placed behind one of the sand ridges in position, say tow-thirds, of the garrison I think should be placed in an entrenched camp in the woods where the horses landed. Here they could be without the range of the batteries on the mainland. They would occupy then five miles of the island. A plank road, with natural epaulement on east side, would afford plenty of communication. This communication would be protected by the guns of the fleet, which should be moved in position, and which could destroy any enemy attempting to cut it off.

Vedettes and sentinels upon the ridge could keep up constant communication between the fort and the entrenched camp. Captain Barry will undertake it, as a boat expedition shall land in face of his guns. The working party and guard, detailed for twenty-four hours' duty, should be kept in the fort to protect the provisions and ammunition there deposited, to work the guns, and repel a sudden assault should the enemy be rash enough to undertake one. The troops in camp and in fort would be healthy, not exposed to fire or too hard worked, and I

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think that all would be more cheerful, more comfortable, and more safe. The present crowded condition of the fort will, if it continues, bring on disease that in even a not crowded place will be destructive.

I have thrown these ideas, the fruit of much reflection upon this subject, together, colonel, for your consideration, and hope they will prove worthy of your approval and adoption. Upon you rests, of course, the responsibility which accompanies command, and I defer to your greater experiences, rank, and responsibility, merely offering that advice which commends itself to my judgment.

I am, very truly, your friend and servant,

M. C. MEIGS,

Captain of Engineers.

You know that tents for 1,000 men should be on the Illinois; that 10,000 yards of canvas afford means to cover the horses from sun and insects, and that ample stores of lumber, ordnance, provisions, &amp;c., are here or on their way.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

April 20, 1861.

Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I inclose you a report of Lieutenant Slemmer in relation to an attempt of the seceders to bribe and seduce the garrison from their duty. That the attempt was made if sully proved by the fact that the money paid to Private McGarr is now actually in the possession of Lieutenant Slemmer. This noble fidelity should be rewarded, but the kind of reward I am not prepared to yet recommend. The design was to spike the flank casemate howitzer, and then to take the work by escalate. I have not doubt but that other soldiers of Lieutenant Slemmer's garrison were tempered with, and I fear in one or two cases successfully, but have not yet had time to investigate the affairs.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Brevet Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]

FORT PICKENS, FLA., April 18, 1861.

TO THE ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,

Headquarters of the Army:

SIR: Having had my suspicions aroused by letters passing to and from Fort Pickens and the village of Warrington, I issued orders that no letters or packages should be sent from or received at the post except those passing through my hands. Subsequent to this a roll of papers came from Warrington, addressed to Ordnance Sergeant E. H. Broady.

Upon opening them a letter fell out, of which the following is a copy:

BROADY: You are without exception the dam's doest fool I have the pleasure of knowing. Bragg will give you a dam'd sight better berth than you have, and besides, you will be on the right side. Don't be a jackass always. Look at Gardner-see his position. I have authority for offering you a like commission. Answer me. Where can I take you a cocktail? My regards to Flynn. Come over and see me. I can assure you that permission to visit your wife, and in a capacity she will be more than glad to find you in, will be granted you. No humbug. Cover over.

Yours,

B.

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I kept this letter, determining to watch the sergeant and intercept other letters. The next day another roll of papers came to the same address, out of which the following note was obtained:

What a jackass you are. I again renew my offer of a position with a lieutenant's commission and all your pay twofold that is due you from the Federal Government. Also to Flynn. If you will help us along to save bloodshed, I can offer any private in the company $500, and any non-commissioned officer $1,000 too, with a guarantee of future provision as high or higher as he nw stands. Every man who will take upon themselves to give us the fort without bloodshed, and save the lives of your garrison, will be well paid-all back pay, $500 for the privates, $1,000 for re-commissioned officers, and a commission in the Confederate army. This, Broady, I offer from authority. I would not offer it otherwise. You as a friend I believe will trust me. We must and will have the fort, but' this not worth one drop of blood; but if it cost 5,000 lives we must and will have it. Fill it full of Federal troops if you will, yet we must and will have it. Don't be a dam'd fool. When and where can I see you? I will go over to-night, and will take a cocktail if you say so.

Answer first opportunity.

Yours, &amp;c.,

B.

The same day I received private information that the troops on the opposite side were making preparations, preparing boats, &c., and intended to come over that night or the next. I immediately addressed a note to Captain Adams, commanding the squadron, informing him of the fact, and requested re-enforcements. A storm prevented the Wyandotte from coming out the harbor that night. Nothing occurred. The next day I received a letter from Captain Adams, of which the following is a copy:

U. S FRIGATE SABINE,

Off Pensacola, April 11, 1861.

Lieutenant A. J. SLEMMER, Commanding Fort Pickens, Fla.:

SIR: You have stated in your communication to me of the 10th instant, that from information received through private hands you have reason to believe that the safety of the fort depends on its immediate re-enforcement. Will you be pleased to lay this information in full before me? So many unfounded rumors have been in circulation to this same effect that it is necessary to be cautious, and my orders are positive not to land re-enforcements unless the fort is actually attacked or preparations are making to attack it. Should your information be such as to justify it, I will have re-enforcements landed as son as practicable when testate of the sea will admit of boats landing outside the harbor and at night, as you recommend.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. A. ADAMS,

Captain, Senior Officer Present.

A storm prevented the steamer Wyandotte from returning to the squadron that night. On the morning of the 12th I made the following answer:

FORT PICKENS, FLA., April 12, 1861.

Captain H. A. ADAMS, Commanding Squadron off Pensacola Harbor:

SIR: In reply to your communication of the 11th instant, I have to state the information I received is through varied sources, and all to the same effect, viz, that the troops were preparing to embark for this island, and that boats and material were ready at the navy-yard to start at any moment; that the intention was troland either last night or the night before. The weather having been such these nights that they could scarcely cross unless very determined, they may be expected at the first favorable opportunity. I have deemed my information of such importance that for the last two nights my men have been placed at the guns in readiness to repel an attack. My men an officers are much fatigued, and I deem it absolutely necessary that the fort should be re-enforced immediately. Provisions should also be landed while there is yet time to do so by the Wyandotte.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery, Commanding.

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On the night of the 12th instant, Captain Adams having received instructions from the Navy Department, Captain Vogdes landed with his company and the marines from the vessels, and relieved me from the command of the post. On the morning of the 11th instant I sent Ordnance Sergeant Broady on board the frigate Sabine, as I deemed it very unsafe to keep him in the fort, even if a good man, subject to the seductive influences I knew to be at work upon him. On the morning of the 13th instant a private of my company, G, First Artillery, Owen McGarr, came to me and made the following statement:

I was on picket guard last night. During the night I saw a small boat approach the beach. I stepped back to see what it was about, when a man came before me. I brought my musket to a charge and ordered him to halt. He said, "Don't shoot; I am a friend." He then began to talk to me and ask about the fort. While he was talking three others came up behind me. They asked me many questions, asking me about the number of men, &amp;c., about the flank defense, whether the guns could not be spiked, &c. Said they would give any man plenty of money if he would only spiked the flank defense guns. Asked when I would be on picket guard again. I told them on Monday night. They said, "We will be over and ready." As they were going away one said to me, "How are you off for money in the fort?" I said, "We have not been paid for six months." He then put a roll of bills in my hand and said, "Give that to them."

He then gave me a roll of bills, in amount sixty dollars. I have it now in my possession. There are evidences that the intention was to bribe my men to spike the flank defense and thus obtain possession of the fort.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. J. SLEMMER,

First Lieutenant, First Artillery.

U. S. STEAMSHIP ATLANTIC,

Off Santa Rosa, April 20, 1861.

Colonel H. BROWN, Commanding Department of Florida, Fort Pickens:

SIR: Captain Gray says that orders from owners are to obey your orders, and to move from anchorage only on written orders; in fact, to have written orders for every movement. He desires to have from you written directions as to his proceedings hereafter. Much done has been by written orders from me, which he obeyed, and which I understood you to authorize me to give. He desires also a certificate from you to show his owners and all others that he has done his duty faithfully, and on my own part I do not see how any man could do more than he has. His zeal, activity, and readiness have been all that we could desire.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. C. MEIGS,

Captain of Engineers.

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More Union Troops

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, April 22, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel E. D. KEYES,

Secretary to the General-in-Chief, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: I wrote you on the 19th, detailing my proceedings to that time. Having sent my dispatches by a sailing vessel, I herewith inclose duplicates.

Since my last the weather has been generally favorable, and we have been busily employed in putting the fort in a condition of defense, and in landing provisions and other stores. I have made quite as good progress as I could have expected. The steamship Atlantic will be discharged to-day, when I shall send their to New York. The Illinois arrived yesterday, and landed Brooks' and Allen's companies, Second Artillery, and a detachments of recruits, so that I have now at this post nine full companies; aggregate about eight hundred and sixty men. I have also sent to Key West for the two infantry companies there. My present command is more than sufficient to repel any assault that may be made on the fort, but the holding the western portion of this island and preventing the rebels making a lodgment on it is of vital importance, and to do so effectually a larger force than I now have is required. If the assistance of the ships could always be insured, my present force might perhaps suffice, but they are constantly liable to be blown off, and may be so far several days, of which an enterprising an numerous enemy might and probably would avail himself. The presence of a large force here also prevents the secessionists from weakening their force, and thus prevents diversion to to the replaces when their presence would be more unwelcome. I propose, as soon as I can put the fort in a defensive state, to throw up field works. Numbers 1, about one and a half miles from the fort, to be garrisoned by Barry's battery and two foot companies; Numbers 2, about the same distance in advance, to be defended by two or three foot companies, leaving five or six for the garrison of the fort. I shall then strongly urge on Captain Adams, commanding the naval forces, the necessity of keeping his ships, or at least two of them, so close to the shore. It great reluctance is felt in placing sailing ships so near the shore. It gives me pleasure to state that I have received from the Navy very valuable assistance, which has been cheerful and cordially rendered.

The work in the fort is progressing rapidly under the supervision of

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Major Tower and Captain Vogdes. Having now establishing something like system, I hope very soon to have it in fighting order. Guns are now being mounted, and traverses for the protection of the works and men being made; but there is an immense work to do. Our prospects are daily brightening, and I hope very soon to be in a situation to act both offensively and defensively. My command is in excellent health, and the men cheerful and in fine spirits. With such officers and such men I have nothing to fear from any number of rebels. Although most of my stores have been landed in full view and within range of the guns of Fort McRee, yet no hostile demonstration has bee made; all has been quiet. I cannot at all account for their not taking possession of the island during the term of Lieutenant Slemmer's command, its importance being so great and so evident; nor can I account for their abstaining to take the fort, their number rendering its success almost certain, unless from reluctance on their part to commence hostilities, or their not being prepared for it. I think their present peaceful attitude arises from a consciousness of our ability to greatly distress them by destroying the navy-yard and by closing the port, while they can only hope to do us partial injury by a long and fruitless bombardment.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.



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Sumter Has Been Taken

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0391 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, April 22, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel E. D. KEYES,

Secretary to the General-in-Chief, Washington, D. C.:

COLONEL: Since writing my dispatches, I have seen newspaper extracts announcing the secession of Virginia, the taking Fort Sumter and Gosport navy-yard. Should this news be true the security of Key West and Tortugas might be jeopardized. I have therefore countermanded my order for bringing two companies from Key West here, and I shall urge Captain Adams to keep a ship at Tortugas and one at Key West, in position to protect the works at these places.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

U. S. TROOP-SHIP ATLANTIC, SANTA ROSA,

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April 22, 1861.

Colonel H. BROWN,

Commanding Military Department of Florida, Fort Pickens:

DEAR SIR: If the news sent to Major Hunt by Colonel Bragg be correct as reported to me by Captain Porter, it becomes necessary to look for means to guard your communications and the most important posts of Key West and Tortugas against a naval enterprise. If the State of Virginia has really rebelled, and surprised the Gosport navy-yard, she has some good vessels and she will very soon have officers to fight them, as Virginians will follow the fortunes of their native State. I do not think, then, that the two companies ordered up from Key West should now be withdrawn from that place. I think that the Sabine and St. Louis, useless here, should go, one to Key West and one to Tortugas, and be moored in position to aid in the occupation and defense

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0392 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

of these harbors. The letter of the President of 1st April, which you bear, and which Captain Adams has seen, gives you full and ample authority to call upon him to make this disposition of his ships.

The expedition under your command embraces the coast and islands of Florida in its scope, and your attention was particularly called to the "even greater importance" of Forts Taylor and Jefferson than of news referred to be correct. I would call upon Captain Adams, in virtue of the authority in you vested by the President, to "co-operate" by sending the ships to Key West and Tortugas. The Crusader will be very useful here, the sailing ships there. Here you need steamers, and sailing ships, except as depots, are useless. From his present position it would take Captain Adams half a day in good weather to bring his guns into play, and in bad weather he could not move at all.

The team road should be extended up the island to the landing. The sailors are hard worked and should be spared rowing. The plank between the gate and dock would make the road. Now less than ever would I put this precious material on the Atlantic and Illinois at peril of destruction by a rough, drunken volunteer's shot. If one of these ships is struck by such a shot, apologies will not restore her. Too little work was done yesterday on ship and shore.

I inclose a copy of your letter of the 17th instant to me, which I handed to Captain Porter indorsed, as you will see.* By this I succeeded in stopping him.

I am, very truly and respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. C. MEIGS,

Captain, Engineers, Chief Engineer.

P. S.-This ship, if properly supplied with boats, can sail by 1 p. m. to-day.


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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0392 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, Fla., April 22, 1861.

Bvt. Major L. G. ARNOLD, Commanding Fort Jefferson, Tortugas:

MAJOR: News has been received here that Virginia has seceded and Gosport navy-yard taken. If os, several large ships have fallen into the hands of the secessionists, and your post may be jeopardized. I shall try to get a ship stationed near to support you, but every effort must be made to strengthen your position as much as possible. Mount all the guns can, and keep your whole force at work until all is finished that your means may permit.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

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Fort Pickens, Fla., April 22, 1861.

Bvt. Major L. G. ARNOLD, Commanding Fort Jefferson:

MAJOR: At my request Captain Adams, commanding the naval forces at this place, has ordered the ship St. Louis to be stationed off your fort in such a manner as to give you necessary aid and protection. He is

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0393 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

also required to render you assistance in any manner that you may require, consistently with the safety of his vessel.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, Fla., April 23, 1861.

Bvt. Major W. H. FRENCH, Commanding Key West, Fla.:

SIR: I am directed by the colonel commanding to say that at his request Captain Adams, commanding the naval forces at this place, has ordered the steamship Crusader to be stationed off your fort in such a manner as to give you necessary aid and protection. Her captain is also required to render you assistance in any manner that you many require consistently with the safety of his vessel.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. L. HARTSUFF,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

U. S. TROOP-SHIP ATLANTIC,

Havana, April 25, 1861.

Brigadier General J. G. TOTTEN, Chief of Engineers, Washington;

GENERAL: In obedience to orders from the President of the United States, I accompanied as engineer the expedition of Colonel Brown, fitted out in New York, and sailing under secret and confidential orders to attempt to re-enforce Fort Pickens.

I left Washington on the afternoon of the 3rd April, having been engaged from the 31st March in preparation for the expedition.

The Secretary of State having assured me that any arrangement I might make for the preservation and control of the public works under my charge in Washington during my absence would be approved by the Executive, I appointed Captain J. N. Macomb, Topographical Engineers, and my brother-in-law, my attorney to sign checks, draw requisitions, and do all other acts necessary for the control of these public works until my return.

Arrived in New York, I devoted myself, in concert with the commander of the expedition, Colonel Harvey Brown, Colonel Keyes, military secretary, and others, to the fitting out of the vessels necessary to convey the troops, horses, artillery, ordnance, and stores to Santa Rosa.

By the request of the President I sailed in the first transport ready, the Atlantic steamer, formerly of the Collins line, with instructions to remain with Colonel Brown until he was established in Fort Pickens, and then to return to my duties in Washington.

We had on board five companies of artillery and infantry, tow of which were light artillery, Barry's and Hunt's. Captain Barry's company carried their horses with them, 73 in number. Captain Hunt's company, having lost their horses by the treachery of General Twiggs in Texas, were dismounted.

Such artillery as could be hastily collected, such part of the stores and supplies for such months for 1,000 men, purchased in New York, as could be embarked by the evening of the 6th April, were placed on board and the vessel hauled into the stream after sunset on that date.

She continued taking in stores during the night and sailed on the

(Another secret reinforcement)

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0394 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

morning of the 7th instant. While of many articles large supplies were put on board, not less than fifty days' rations of any single article of subsistence accompanied us, and we carried with us thirty days' forage for the horses.

The dock was left covered with stores, shovels, sand bags, forage, subsistence, ammunition, and artillery, to follow with steamer Illinois, to sail on the evening of the 8th.

These two vessels it was believed would carry supplies for 1,000 men for six months.

The uncertainty of the Government as to the condition of Fort Pickens, and as to the very orders and instructions under which the squadron off that fortress was acting, led to apprehensions lest he place might be taken before relief could reach it.

A landing in boats from the mainland on a stormy night was perfectly practicable in spite of the utmost effort of a fleet anchored outside and off the bar to prevent it. Such a landing in force taking possession of the low flank embrasures by men arms dwight revolvers would be likely to sweep in a few minutes over the ramparts of Fort Pickens, defended by only forty soldiers and forty ordinary men from the navy-yard, a force which did not allow one man to be kept at each flanking gun.

Believing that a ship of war could be got ready for sea and reach Pensacola before any expedition in force, I advised the sending of such a ship under a young and energetic commander, with orders to enter the harbor without stopping, and, once in, to prevent any boat expedition from the main to Santa Rosa.

Captain David D. Porter readily undertook this dangerous duty, and, proceeding to New York, succeeded in fitting out the Powhatan, and sailed on the 6th for his destination.

Unfortunately, or rather fortunately, as the result will show, the Powhatan had been put of commission at Brooklyn and stripped of her crew and stores on the 1st April, only two and a half hours before the telegram from the President ordering her instant preparation for sea reached the commander of the navy-yard at that place. She was got ready for sea, however, by working night and day, and sailed on the 6th, about twelve hours before the Atlantic.

Off Hatteras, on Monday, 8th, the Atlantic ran into a heavy northeast gale, which increased to such a degree that, in order to save the horses on the forward deck, it became necessary to have the ship to under steam and keep her head to sea for over thirty-six hours. When the gale abated we found ourselves 100 miles out of our course, 138 miles east-southeast from Hatteras.

With all speed possible under the circumstances we made our way to Key West, where, anchoring off the harbor and allowing no other communication with the shore, Colonel Brown, the ordnance officer, Lieutenant Balch, and myself landed by boat at Fort Taylor.

Here, calling the United States judge, Mr. Marvin, the newly-appointed collector and marshal, and the commanding officer of the fort, Major French, to meet Colonel Brown at the fort, the orders and instructions of the President were communicated to these gentlemen, and the commission of marshal for Mr. H. Slapp, intrusted to me for this purpose by the Secretary of State, was delivered to Judge Marvin.

Several secession flags floated from buildings in view of the fort and upon the court-house of the town.

The President's orders to the authorities at Key West were to tolerate the exercise of no officer in authority inconsistent with the laws and Con-

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0395 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

stitution of the United States, to support the civil authority of the United States by force of arms if necessary, to protect the citizens in their lawful occupations, and in case rebellion or insurrection actually broke out to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, and remove from the vicinity of the fortresses of Key West and Tortugas all dangerous or suspected persons.

Having by restoring much of our cargo made room some additions, Colonel Brown here drew from Fort Taylor a battery of 12-pounder howitzers and 6-pounder guns, three 10-inch side mortars for which shells had been embarked at New York, and a supply of ammunition for the field pieces; these, being placed upon a scow, were towed out to the Atlantic anchorage by the Crusader, Captain Craven, and put upon her decks during the night.

Early the next morning, 14th April, we proceeded to the Tortugas, where proper instructions were left with Major Arnold, commanding the place. Four mountain howitzers, with prairie carriages, light and suitable either for the sands of Santa Rosa or for the service upon the covered ways of Fort Pickens, with supplies of fixed ammunition, spherical case and canister, were taken on board.

Twenty carpenters and one overseer, engaged in Washington, had followed me to New York and were already on board the Atlantic.

To assist in the manual labor of disembarking the immense stores, to be landed on an open sea beach exposed to the broad Gulf of Mexico, Colonel Brown, under the ample powers conferred on him by the President, directed Lieutenant Morton, Engineers, to send with the expedition one overseer and twenty of the hired negroes at Fort Jefferson, and skillful with the roar and the rope. By some mistake twenty-one of the negroes embarked, and they proved hardy, willing, and cheerful laborers during the disembarkation.

Lieutenants Reese and McFarland, Engineers, here joined the expedition.

To assist in landing artillery, the attempt was made to tow a scow from Fort Jefferson to Pensacola, but it broke from its fastenings before we left the harbor. It has since been recovered at the fort.

Leaving the harbor of Tortugas after dark on the 14th, forcing our way through a heavy head sea caused by a severe norther, losing all the horse-stales on the port bow of the steamer, washed away by the sea, though fortunately without destroying any of the horses, we reached the anchorage of the squadron off Pensacola bar at 6 p. m. of the 16th instant. It must then have been known in Pensacola, though concealed from the fort and from those afloat, that Fort Sumter had, after bombardment, surrendered on the 13th.

Communicating with Captain Adams, commanding the squadron, and exhibiting his instructions from the President, Colonel Brown called upon him for boats to make a landing immediately after dark.

The Atlantic proceeded at dark, towing the boats to anchor near the shore, and, while waiting for the boats to come alongside, the signal for attack, two rockets from the fort, was made by Captain Vogdes.

Captain Vogdes, with his company and 110 marines, had landed on the night of the 12th. The orders of General Scott to him to land, received some days before, had not been executed, because unrevoked instructions to Captain Adams from the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of War contradicted them. Captain Adams had therefore declined landing the troops until Lieutenant Slemmer officially informed him that he apprehended an attack.

From the signs visible on the mainland and from information received

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0396 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

by him, Lieutenant Slemmer on the 12th, being convinced that an attack was imminent, called upon Captain Adams to land the troops, and it was done that night.

Major Tower, Engineers, thought that this landing and very stormy weather had deferred the attack. But commotion on shore and movements visible from the fort led them to believe that an attack would be made immediately after the arrival of the Atlantic, and therefore the signal was sent up.

The ditches of the Barrancas were lighted up and much hurrahing was heard.

While the boats were collecting on the Atlantic, Colonel Brown and his staff, taking a boat of the frigate Sabine, under Lieutenant Belknap, of the vessel, pulled into the mouth of the harbor, and we landed on the beach between Forts McRee and Pickens. Passing many sentinels and patrols, we entered Fort Pickens by the north gate, and were gladly welcomed by Captain Vogdes and his officers, who assured us that five thousand men might be expected on shore in a short time.

I returned in the Sabine's boat to direct the landing of all the men who could be got ashore during the night.

On our way to the Atlantic we met the fleet of boats, and which landed as intended, and put our two hundred men into the fort within a few hours after our arrival.

The night passed of quietly, and the next morning early al the rest of the command, with the exception of the carpenters and laborers and Captain Barry's artillery company, retained to attend to their horses, were landed on the beach and marched into the fort.

I landed that morning, with Captain Barry and a covering party of men, about five miles from Fort Pickens and reconnoitered the island, determined upon a satiable place for landing the horses and for an entrenched camp out of range of the heaviest artillery on the mainland, and at a point beyond which a boat canal may easily be cut across the island.

During the day and night of the 17th and the morning of the 18th the horses were got ashore. One was drowned alongside by some mismanagement, one got loose, swam twice around the ship before the was caught, and died from exhaustion after landing, and one, turned head over heels by the surf, broke his neck. Four had died and been thrown overboard in he boisterous passage, so that seven out of seventy-three were lost. The rest landed safely, and were at once set to work to haul into the fort the immense stores brought with the expedition.

On the morning of the 17th, while engaged in landing the horses, the Powhatan, which we had passed without seeing her during the voyage, hove in sight. A note from Colonel Brown advised me that in his opinion her entrance into the harbor at that time would bring on a collision, which it was very important to defer until our stores, guns, and ammunition were disposed of.

As the enemy did not seem inclined yet to molest us; as with 600 troops in the fort and three war steamers anchored close inshore there was no danger of a successful attempt at a landing by the enemy, it was evident that it was important to prevent a collision, and her entrance would have uselessly exposed a gallant officer and a devoted crew to extreme dangers.

The circumstances had changed since Captain Porter's orders had been issued by the President. Knowing the imperative nature of these orders and the character of him who bore them, I feared that it would not be possible to arrest his course; but requesting the commander of

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the Wayandotte, on board of which I fortunately found myself at the time I received Colonel Brown's letter, to get under way and place his vessel across the path of the Powhatan, making signal that I wished to speak with him, I succeeded at length, in spite of his changes of course and his disregard of our signals, in stopping this vessel, which steered direct for the perilous channel on which frowned the guns of McRee, Barrancas, and many newly-constructed batteries.

I handed to Captain Porter Colonel Brown's letter, indorsed upon it my hearty concurrence in its advice, which, under his authority from the Executive, had the force of an order from the President himself, and brought the Powhatan to anchor near the Atlantic, in position to sweep with her guns the landing place and its communications.

The Brooklyn shortly afterwards anchored east of the Atlantic, and the Wanted took up position near her.

The landing of so many tons of stores was laborious and tedious. Whenever the surf would permit, it was carried on by the boats of the several vessels, Powhatan, Brooklyn, Wanted, Sabine, and St. Louis. The most useful boats engaged were the paddle-box boats of the Powhatan. One of them, armed with a Dahlgren boat howitzer, was kept ready to protect the stores and men on the beach from the guard-boats of the enemy, which would occasionally approach the narrow island from the bay opposite. None of them, however, interrupted the landing.

On the night of the 19th-20th the Illinois arrived bringing Brooks' and Allen's companies and 100 recruits and some sixteen stragglers from the companies embarked on the Atlantic. She brought in all 295 men and officers and a full cargo of stores.

On the 23rd, having landed all the cargo of the Atlantic, having seen Colonel Brown established in Fort Pickens, I proceeded to sea in the Atlantic to leave dispatches and get coal at Key West, to return her to New York and myself to return to Washington.

The naval store of coal at Key Vest is small and the Mohawk was about to take her place at the dock to coal and proceed to Fort Pickens to relieve the Wanted, almost worn out, having been over one hundred days under steam without opportunity for repair.

The only merchant on the island who had coal for sale, Mr. Tift, sympathizing with those who are in array against his country, refused to sell coal to a steamer in Government employ, and the Atlantic was forced to come to this port as the quickest way of obtaining coal for the voyage to New York.

The seizure of the Star of the West, the issue of letters of marque and reprisal, and the proclamation of the President were not then known to us.

Large requisitions for ordnance and ordnance stores have been made by Colonel Brown. They should be forwarded with all possible dispatch.

The principal batteries constructed against Fort Pickens are beyond the range of the siege 10-inch mortars at that place, and heavy sea-coast 10-inch mortars are much needed. A battery of rifled guns is also wanted.

The distance of the hostile batteries is so great that I think, therefore, though annoying, will do little damage. Rifled 42-pounder will enable the garrison to dismount the 10-inch columbiads which arm the battery west of the light-house, and which are the most formidable opposed to them.

Sea-coast mortars placed in battery outside the fort, but protected by

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its fire, will cover the whole ground occupied by hostile batteries, and will draw off much of the fire intended for Fort Pickens.

I advised Colonel Brown to place the greater part of his men in an entrenched camp outside. He has now, including marines and 21 mechanics, nearly 1,000 men in the fort.

A favorable spot for camping is found abut four miles from the west end of the island. It is beyond the range of the 13-inch sea-coast mortar at the navy-yard. It is overlooked, as is the whole narrow island between it and the fort, by the guns of the steamer-9 and 11 inch guns. A good road can be made between this entrenched camp and the fort, perfectly protected by sand ridges forming natural epaulements from all horizontal fire for nine-tenths of the distance. A boat channel can be easily cut through the island just above it, and this may enlarge to a navigable inlet. Here the men and horses would be healthy, safe from annoyance and from fire.

The fort itself, it appears to me, should be treated like the batteries in front of besieging parallels. Men enough to work the guns in use and to protect it again a sudden dart should be kept in it, and none others exposed to fire.

Thus treated, so long as the United States maintains a naval supremacy off Pensacola, it appears to me that Fort Pickens can be held with little loss of life.

As Fort Sumter, I learned at Key West, has been bombarded and taken, I presume that the farce of peace so long kept up at Pensacola while planting batteries against the United States will soon terminate, and that the entrance of troops, provisions, munitions, and ordnance, by steam and sail, under the guns of our squadron and of our fortress, to be turned against both whenever convenient to do so, will be stopped.

The enemy did not seem to be ready to commence hostilities. They stopped the papers on the night of our arrival, 16th, and of the next mail they allowed, I understand, only two letters to come off to the squadron, both from Southern States. They informed the garrison that Fort Sumter had surrendered without bloodshed; that General Scott had resigned; that Virginia had seceded; that Pennsylvania troops passing through Baltimore to the defense of Washington had been robbed of 8,000 stand of arms, &amp;c., but they continued to work the naval founder night and days, Sundays included, casting, as was reported, solid shot for their 10-inch and other guns, and they moved artillery from Fort McRee to other positions in preparation for hostilities.

Fort Pickens, Fort Taylor, and Fort Jefferson need much to put them beyond all hazard from the attack of a naval power. Upon these wants I shall have the honor of making a detailed report.

Orders were given by Colonel Brown, as commanding the new Military Department of Florida, for the fortification of the Tortugas Keys, so as, in connection with vessels of the Navy moved in proper positions, to command the whole anchorage. At present a fleet could enter that harbor and find secure anchorage without exposing a single ship to the fire of Fort Jefferson.

Orders were also given to the commander at Key West and to the Engineer officer, Captain Hunt, to prepare plans for entrenchments to prevent a hostile landing on the island of Key West.

Fort Taylor, with a brick and concrete scarp exposed toward the island, from which it is only 300 yards distant, cannot resist a landing,and is no better fitted to withstand bombardment than Fort Sumter. The burning woodwork of its barracks would soon drive out its garrison.

I add an approximate estimate of the United States forces on and

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0399 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

about Sant Rosa Island, said to be opposed by about 5,000 to 7,000 men on the mainland. The army on the mainland, however, is probably increased by detachments set at liberty by the taking of Fort Sumter, unless, as is more probable, their armies are both intended for action against Washington City:


Lieutenant Duane's Engineer company ..........................
60

Captain Barry's company ......................................
90

Major Hunt's company .........................................
90

Captain Clitz's company .....................................
90

Lieutenant Hildt's company ...................................
87

Colonel Brook's company ......................................
90

Captain Allen's company ......................................
88

Stragglers ...................................................
16

Recruits .....................................................
100

Captain Vogdes' company ......................................
80

Lieutenant Slemmer's company .................................
40

Ordinary seamen ..............................................
40

Marines ......................................................
100

Carpenters ...................................................
21
-----
992
-----
-----

Cres of Sabine ..............................................
450

Brooklyn ....................................................
300

Powhatan ....................................................
300

Wanted ...................................................
75
-----
1,125
Deduct marines in fort ...................................... 100
------
1,025

Garrison ...................................................
992
------

Total ......................................................
2,017
Minnesota ordered to Pensacola ............................. 600
------
2,617

The Mohawk, at Key West, is ordered up to relieve the Wanted; and the St. Louis is at Key West, believed to be under orders for the Tortugas. Crusader is here to return to Key West in a day or two.

The expedition is under great obligations to the sailors of the fleet, who were ready and uniting in the severe labor of landing horses, ordnance, and stores of all kinds upon the sea beach, exposed at times to a heavy surf, which killed one horse and bilged several boats.

Lieutenants Brown, of the Powhatan, and Lewis, of the Sabine, remained on board the Atlantic for several days, directing the boats and seamen, and were of the greatest assistance to us.

Captain Gray, commanding this steamer, the Atlantic, deserves the thanks of the Government. None could exceed him in efforts for the success of the expedition and for the well-being and comfort of all on board. Night and day he and his crew worked at their posts embarking or disembarking men and stores. His skilful seamanship carried the vessel with the loss of only four horses through a most sever gale which lasted for thirty-six hours, and his watchfulness narrowly saved her from collision with a large at night and during the height of the storm.

I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,

M. C. MEIGS,

Captain of Engineers.

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(From this point to the next posted page is just more or less troop condition and movements of troops and ships. Following is the next important OR entry)



[ Edited Mon May 16 2016, 08:24AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Mon May 16 2016, 09:03AM

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Joined: Tue Jul 17 2007, 10:46AM
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Tensions Mount

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0408 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 6, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding Troops in Florida:

SIR: I respectfully call your attention to what I conceive an abuse of the rights and privileges of a flag of truce. This morning a steamer came to the wharf of this post with a flag, in which, besides the bearer, were a number of officers of your command and some citizens with spyglasses, the professed object of the flag being to bring a private letter from a lady to a subaltern officer of my command.

A steamer a few days since, also with the officers of your command on board, visited one of the ships off this post, and in going and returning, instead of keeping in a direct line, coasted along the shore on both sides as close to this fort as she with safety could.

These both are, in my judgment, gross abuses of the flag, and I trust you will cause them to be immediately corrected. I observe and cause to be observed by my command strictly the laws of war in such cases, and expect a like observance on your part.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

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HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 8, 1861.

Captain H. A. ADAMS, Commanding Naval Forces off Pensacola:

CAPTAIN: I deem it my duty to call your attention to the importance to the defense of this fort of excluding all steamers from the harbor. Their introduction would be of essential injury to us and benefit to the enemy, so that every possible precaution should, I think, be used to prevent it. I think that under no circumstances should a steamer or a vessel loaded with forage or provisions or articles contraband of war be permitted to enter. All those articles are for the consumption of the army of the enemy, and we, by permitting their introduction, are really feeding our enemies, and giving them the means of assailing us. We have information, which, though not official, is authentic, that our steamers have been seized and appropriated by the enemy; that he has issued letter of marque, and its fitting out privateers, and that our officers have been taken prisoners, our property stolen, and that one of your own officers is now a prisoner in his hands. Under these circumstances, should not effective measures be taken to stop all vessels? I certainly think so. Permit me to suggest that the passage at the north of the island and the landing of the Perdido should be strictly watched, and that every possible exertion should be used to prevent the introduction of supplies of any and every kind.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure C.]

U. S. FORCES SABINE,

Off Pensacola, May 8, 1861.

Colonel HARVEY BROWN, U. S. Army, Fort Pickens:

COLONEL: I have given orders to the guard-vessels to allow no provisions to enter Pensacola Harbor. In the absence of all instructions with regard to the blockade, I do not know how to proceed towards foreign ships, which by the laws and customs of nations are usually allowed a certain time to come and go after the declaration of a blockade, nor towards those coasting vessels which exhibit a license from the U. S. Government. My doubts on this subject prevented me from making prizes of the two steamers detained last night, which had cargoes of provisions consigned to Judah &amp; Le Baron. I have sent them back to Mobile. The President's proclamation of blockade is dated April 19, and it is more than time some specific directions about it should have reached me here. Should I hear of any privateers, man-of-war, or letter of marque being at sea, under the secession flag, I intend to commence making captures immediately. But I shall be greatly embarrassed what to do with them, as I have no officers to put on board and carry them to a port of the United States for adjudication. Has any progress been made in the preparation of a battery to receive the Brooklyn's 9-inch guns, if it should be thought advisable to land them? I am afraid the work of discharging the Philadelphia will go on but slowly, as the large boats of the Powhatan have been so much injured as to require extensive repairs, and those of the Brooklyn will be employed for a few days in ballasting the Supply.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. A. ADAMS,

Captain, Senior Officer Present.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0410 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 8, 1861.

Captain H. A. ADAMS, Commanding Naval Forces off Pensacola:

CAPTAIN: I have you this morning on the subject of allowing provisions to enter Pensacola Harbor, and am gratified that you have so far anticipated my wishes. I am not prepared to express a decided opinion as to the foreign vessels, but as the port has not been actually declared in a state of blockade I should suppose it to be expedient to let them pass, unless they actually have on board articles contraband of war. I am, however, decidedly of opinion that no United States vessel, containing any article which will nourish or assist the enemy, should be permitted to enter, and most certainly no one, either American or secession, from a rebel State. I regret that you did not feel it to be your duty to detain the two steamers, they being in my opinion lawful prizes.

I have done nothing in relation to the batteries for the guns of the Brooklyn because I distinctly understood you to say that you could not possibly spare any guns from her. I may also say that other and more pressing work would have prevented my doing it, but that I will have an engineer detailed to lay out and superintend such a work whenever you may wish to commence it, presuming, as I do, that your officers will wish the whole to be a Navy work.

Is not the unloading of the Philadelphia and provisioning and supplying this work of very paramount importance to ballasting the Supply? I think that now, while the sea is smooth and the enemy quiet, nothing should take the boats off, and I most respectfully urge that the ballasting the Supply may be deferred until after the steamer is unloaded.

I am much obliged for the papers.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0411 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 14, 1861.

Lieutenant Colonel E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: Since my letter of yesterday I have dispatches from Major French, commanding Key West, and among other reports that he has suspended the writ of habeas corpus at Key West. When I was there on my way to this place I left in the hands of Major French a proclamation, to be published when a contingency requiring it should arise. He considers that it has done so. I inclose his letter (A) to me and my answer (B).

The Water Witch, which was dispatched to Havana for sand bags, has returned with some, with which we can finish or defenses.

I was misinformed as to there being 10-inch sea-coast mortars at tortugas. There are none there or at Key West.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Major, Second Artillery, Colonel, Commanding.

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS OF KEY WEST,

May 8, 1861.

Captain GEORGE L. HARTSUFF,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. Department Florida:

CAPTAIN: I the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 2nd instant this 10 a. m. There have been no secession flags flying since my peremptory order on the subject. The military organization called the "Island Guards" has disbanded, in consequence of my directing the mayor to furnish me with the muster roll, which he did. The newspaper called the "Key of the Gulf" I suppressed, be cause it was uttering treasonable and threatening language against the judiciary and other United States officers. I directed the mayor to inform the editor (a Mr. Ward) that he was under military surveillance, and that the fact of his not being in the cells of this fort for treason was simply a matter as to expediency and proper point of time. To enable me to meet such cases with promptitude, I published on the 6th instant Colonel Brown's proclamation suspending the writ of habeas corpus. At this date I have not deemed it advisable to follow it with any restrictions upon the municipal authorities or the citizens of the town. As cases have arisen they were at once met, and I will continue this gradual enforcement of the power of the U. S. Government, thus allowing loyal citizens aid and support in their duties and pursuits.

I have the gratification to know that my course has the approval of the judicial officers here, and has given universal satisfaction to the

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0412 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Union-loving citizens, besides others whose interests are compromised by the acts of secessionists.

There will be no difficulty hereafter in procuring coal or other ships' requirements. All will be supplied upon the usual terms.

The U. S. consul, Mr. Shufeldt, at Havana writes to me that he has funds for the purchase of coal, but that none is at present to be had there. Should any arrive later he will purchase and ship it to this place.

Judge Marvin has not resigned. The district attorney, marshal, and clerk are performing all duties which do not require a jury. There is no grand jury, therefore no presentments. In consequence, it has devolved upon me to use my own judgment in the summary processes I have previously mentioned, and afterwards received the approval and support of Judge Marvin and Mr. Boynton, district attorney.

Lieutenant Commanding Craven, U. S. Navy, has put the harbor under blockade. I inclose a copy of his order.*

No State court has been held here. I doubt whether it will be. The instructions of the colonel commanding will be strictly observed.

The inclosed number of the New Orleans Picayune (May 3),* sent to me by the consul at Havana, shows that no troops can be relied on as coming from Indianola, Tex. This unparalleled act of treachery, violating the stipulations made by their own convention to assist the troops to evacuate the territory, gives no hope from that quarter. The ordnance and stores required, I regret, are not here, except a few 10-inch shells. I have directed one hundred with sabots and straps to be sent. This fort is daily growing in strength. The barbette guns on the face fronting the town are all in position. I am proud to say that the officers and men are in a high state of discipline and subordination, and, although another soldier might never come, I doubt whether even a lodgment could be made on the island.

We have had a fine rain, replenishing the tanks. Nearly three months' water is on hand, independent of the wells at the head of the bridge. The health of the command is very good.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

WM. H. FRENCH,

Brevet Major, Commanding.

[Inclosure B.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 13, 1861.

Bvt. Major W. H. FRENCH, Commanding Fort Taylor, Key West:

MAJOR: The colonel commanding entirely disapproves your action in sending Ordnance Sergeant Flynn away from your post without his authority. The fact that he was not ordered to Washington, nor to any other place except your post, was proof in itself that it was neither the colonel's intention nor desire that he should go anywhere else, because if so the order would have been issued from these headquarters. The colonel considers that in this case you have not only exceeded the limits of your authority, but hat you have no excuse for so doing, as there was both time and opportunity for communicating with him. The matter did not demand immediately attention and no interest of the service was in the slightest degree injured to delay.

The colonel commanding directs that hereafter you will in no case, except when the necessities of the service can be shown to be absolutely

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0413 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.


imperative, assume the responsibility of ordering men under your command out of the department without his authority.

As the colonel has only our own letters and not the replies nor the special reasons for your action, he cannot judge of the immediate necessity for suspending the writ of habeas corpus, but having the approval of Judge Marvin and of the district attorney, it has his. He desires that you send here all the papers in the case.

The island being under martial law, all its citizens must acknowledge allegiance to the Government. While the colonel wishes you to be perfectly firm and decided in upholding the laws and suppressing rebellion, he desires that it may be done in a spirit of kindness and conciliation, so that if possible they may be led from error rather then be driven into it be an undue exercise of authority. If, however, any prove incorrigible and refuse allegiance to the Government, they must be sent from the island immediately, without respect of persons.

The colonel does not approve of any removal of troops to Tampa or elsewhere from Key West, nor will any be made unless in case of extreme urgency. Key West is of paramount importance, and must not be weakened for any contingent service; neither does he think it at all expedient for the Crusader to leave Key West for any such purpose. He intends to address Captain Adams on the subject.

The colonel is much gratified to learn the falsity of the report that a secession flag was permitted to fly from the court-house. He commends your zeal, and is pleased to learn of the soundness of your officers.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

GEO. L. HARTSUFF,

Assistant Adjutant-General.


U. S. FRIGATE SABINE,

Off Pensacola, May 14, 1861.

Colonel H. BROWN,

Commanding Department of Florida, Fort Pickens:

COLONEL: Yesterday I gave General Bragg official notice of the blockade of Pensacola Harbor, in order that the foreign ships lying there might be made fully aware of it. I inclose you a copy of a communication from him in reply, which I have just received.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. A. ADAMS,

Captain, Senior Officer Present.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS OF CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, May 14, 1861.

Captain H. A. ADAMS,

Senior U. S. Naval Officer, off Pensacola:

SIR: Your communication of yesterday's date, announcing to me an act of aggressive war on the part of your Government by the blockade of this port, I accept as such, and consider it a virtual acknowledgment of our national existence and independence.

You will please to consider the harbor as closed against all boats and vessels of the United States, as I shall permit none to enter except your dispatch-boat under a white flag.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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(The next few pages just give details of strengthening positions and some troop numbers. I will also skip these.)





[ Edited Sun May 22 2016, 08:01AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Sun May 22 2016, 08:18AM

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Posts: 3657
War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0419 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

[Inclosure C.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 27, 1861.

Captain W. W. McKEAN, Commanding Naval Forces off Pensacola:

SIR: I am in receipt of your letter of the 26th instant. Although the two sail vessels you propose leaving will give a very inadequate support on account of the difficulty of moving them, their inability to lie close to the shore, and their projectiles being principally solid shot, yet, appreciating the importance of blockading Mobile and capturing the vessel, I will interpose no further objections to the departure of the Niagara after the arrival of the St. Louis, provided the Mohawk is permitted to continue to guard the north pass, which I consider of great importance, and that the Wyandotte and Water Witch continue here with the Huntsville to enforce the blockade and protect the island.

I again respectfully request that you will order Captain Porter immediately to return to me the small schooner which I lent him especially to assist him here, and which is so extraordinary a manner he took away without my knowledge or consent.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure D.]

P. S.- "Since writing the above your communication has been handed to me. I will leave the Mohawk and Huntsville here, and will in compliance with your request direct Lieutenant Commanding Porter to order the schooner immediately back. The Powhatan is off Mobile, but it is possible, for it will require three vessels to blockade that river. She had but one week's water when she left, and cannot obtain a supply until she reaches the Mississippi."

(A true copy of a postscript in a letter from Captain McKean to me, the letter being on another subject.)

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure E.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 22, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding Troops in Florida:

SIR: In my letter to you of the 17th ultimo I announced my intention of acting only on the defensive, unless assailed. Since then your so-called government has commenced an unholy, unjust, and parricidal war on our common country, and you personally have been almost constantly hostilely engaged in erecting batteries against this fort, and last night in anchoring a floating battery within range of and menacing my command. You will therefore be pleased to notice that I shall act on the offensive whenever the interests and honor of my country, in my opinion, require it.

I am, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0420 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Inclosure F.]

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, Fla., May 22, 1861.

Colonel HARVEY BROWN, Commanding U. S. Forces, Fort Pickens, Fla."

SIR: Your communication of this date announced your intention to "act on the offensive whenever the honor and interests of your country, in your judgment, require it." To any action you may take I shall respond with alacrity. Having voluntarily pledged yourself "act on the defensive, unless assailed," I am no little surprised at your complaint that I, who acted under no such pledge, have been "constantly hostilely engaged in erecting batteries against your fort," when you have been all the while, under my daily observation, doing precisely the same thing against my position. The merits of the controversy between our respective governments I choose not to discuss with you. Impartial history will decide that question for us; but I must insist on the propriety and necessity of your observing those courtesies of style and language which I have a right to expect from one holding your high position, in any future communications addressed to these headquarters.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure G.]

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA,

Fort Pickens, May 22, 1861-2 p. m.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG, Commanding Troops in Florida:

SIR: It being impossible for me to know the character of the vessel now under my guns, or the object for which she is placed there, or of here removal from there, I can only consider here as designed to act in some manner against this fort or the shipping off this harbor. I have therefore to notify you that any attempt to remove or to occupy her will be considered and act of hostility, which I shall resist with what means I possess, unless I shall receive a satisfactory explanation.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

HARVEY BROWN,

Colonel, Commanding.

[Inclosure H.]

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, Fla., May 22, 1861.

Colonel H. BROWN, Commanding U. S. Troops, &amp;c., Fort Pickens:

SIR: Your second communication of this date is received, and I am surprised at the excitement which has been caused by the accidental position of the dry-dock from the navy-yard, without troops or armament. I cannot see how it could be regarded in any hostile light, and I had intended removing it as soon as my means and the wind and tide would allow.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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Page 421 is a map not shown.

Page 422 - 427 deals with troop movements and martial law in Florida.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0427 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

HEADQUARTERS, May 31, 1861.

Colonel WM. B. FRANKLIN, U. S. Army, Washington:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs to request the governor of New York to designate a regiment of three or two years's volunteers for a distant service not to be named. You are confidentially informed that Fort Pickens is the destination of the regiment. It is to be embarked under your direction, with certain supplies to be prepared under immediately authority of the War Department. You will learn the probable time of embarkation, and concert with the proper agents on this subject. Your exertions will be directed towards inspecting, mustering, and equipping the regiment prior to its departure, so that it may be provided with whatever is necessary for its efficiency and comfort.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

P. S.- Please forward by confidential hands the inclosed letter to Colonel Brown.

E. D. T.

[Inclosure.]

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

Washington, May 31, 1861.

Bvt. Colonel H. BROWN, U. S. Army,

Commanding Department of Florida, Fort Pickens:

SIR: The General-in-Chief directs me to inform you that a regiment of volunteers from New York, mustered into service for two years unless sooner discharged, is ordered to re-enforce Fort Pickens, under your command. This will enable you to send back the company of infantry to Key West. The general directs that you detach Captain and Brevet Major Hunt's company with its battery, and order it to return in the

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0428 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

transports to New York Harbor. A large supply of ordnance and ordnance stores, provisions for 1,000 men for six months, a cargo of ice and quartermaster's stores will be shipped to you.

The General-in-Chief directs that you detach Captain Clitz, Third Infantry, and order him to report at headquarters as major of a new regiment.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. TOWNSEND,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

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[ Edited Sun May 22 2016, 08:19AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Sun May 22 2016, 08:19AM

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Blockading Key West

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0429 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.



Declaration of blockade.

To all whom it may concern:

I, Wn. Mervine, flag officer, commanding the U. S. naval forces composing the Gulf Squadron, give notice that by wirtue of the power and authority in me vested, and in pursuance of the proclamations of his Excellency the President of the United States, promulgated under dates of April 19 and 27, 1861, respectively, that an effective blockade of the port of Key West, Fla., has been established, and will be rigidly enforced and maintained against all vessels (public armed vessels of foreign powers alone excepted) which shall attempt to enter or depart from said port of Key West, Fla.

WM. MERVINE,

Flag Officer, Commanding Gulf Blockading Squadron.

Given at Key West, June 8, 1861, U. S. Flag-ship Mississippi.


. S. FLAG-SHIP MISSISSIPPI,

Key West, June 11, 1861.

The declaration of blockade of this port made by me on the 8th instant is so far relaxed in its terms as to allow legitimate trading between this port and the ports of the loyal States. Trading between Key West, the island of Cuba, and any of the West India islands, so long as it is confined to lawful objects of commerce, may be carried on under such restrictions as may be imposed by the naval commander stationed off this port.

WM. MERVINE,

Flag Officer, Commanding Gulf Blockading Squadron.

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More general communications To page 441

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0440 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Message of the President of the United States, in answer to a resolution of the Senate requesting information concerning the quasi armistice alluded to in his message of the 4th instant.

JULY 31, 1861.- Read, ordered to lie on the table and be printed.

To the Senate of the United States:

In answer to the resolution of the Senate of the 19th instant, requesting information concerning the quasi armistice alluded to in my message of the 4th instant, I transmit a report from the Secretary of War.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

JULY 30, 1861.

NAVY DEPARTMENT,

July 29, 1861.

The Secretary of the Navy, to whom was referred the resolution of the Senate of the 19th instant, requesting the President of the United States to "communicate to the Senate (if not incompatible with the public interest) the character of the quasi armistice to which he refers in his message of the 4th instant, be reason of which the commander of the frigate Sabine refused to transfer the United States troops into Fort Pickens in obedience to his orders; by whom and when such armistice was entered into; and if any, and what, action has been taken by the Government in view of the disobedience of the order of the Presi-

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0441 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-UNION.

dent aforesaid," has the honor to report that it is believed the communication of the information called for would not, at this time, comport with the public interest.

Respectfully submitted.

GIDEON WELLES.

The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

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This ends the Union Correspondence. It is the start of the Confederate Communication.



[ Edited Sun May 22 2016, 08:35AM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Wed Jun 15 2016, 07:39AM

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Confederate Correspondence

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0442 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

WASHINGTON, January 5, 1861.

JOSEPH FINEGAN, Esq., or Colonel GEO. W. CALL [Tallahassee, Fla.]:

MY DEAR SIR: The immediately important thing to be done is the occupation of the forts and arsenal in Florida. The naval station and forts at Pensacola are first in consequence. For this a force is necessary. I have conversed with Mr. Toombs upon the subject. He will start this week for Georgia, and says if the convention of sov'y [sovereignty] will ask Governor Brown, of Georgia, for a force he will immediately send on sufficient force and take the navy-yard and forts. The occupation of the navy-yard will give us a good supply of ordnance and make the capture of the forts easier. Major Chase built the forts and will know all about them. Lose no time, for, my opinion is, troops will be very soon dispatched to re-enforce and strengthen the forts in Florida. The arsenal at Chattahoochee should be looked to, and that at once, to prevent removal of arms.

I think that by 4th March all the Southern States will be out, except perhaps Kentucky and Missouri, and they will soon have to follow.

What is advisable is the earliest possible organization of a Southern Confederacy and of a Southern Army. The North is rapidly consolidating against us upon the plan of force. A strong Government, as eight States will make, promptly organized, and a strong Army, with Jeff. Davis for General-in-Chief, will bring them to a reasonable sense of the gravity of the crisis.

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0443 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-CONFEDERATE.

Army. I repeat this because it is the important policy.

Virginia, Maryland, and Tennessee are rapidly coming up to the work.

God speed you.

I shall give the enemy a shot next week before retiring. I say enemy! Yes, I am theirs, and they are mine. I am willing to be their masters, but not their brothers.

Yours, in haste,

D. L. YULEE.

Lose no time about the navy-yard and forts at Pensacola.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0444 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

January 8, 1861.

Honorable WILLIAM M. BROOKS,

President of the Convention of the State of Alabama:

In reply to a verbal communication from the body over which you preside, made by one of its members, I make the following statement:

My information in regard to Pensacola is that Governor Perry, of Florida, has informed me by dispatch that he has ordered the forts to be occupied by the troops of Florida and asks aid from Alabama.

The force at his command in West Florida is small and not sufficient to take and maintain the forts. Troops from Alabama could reach that doing before the troops of East and Middle Florida. This fact, with the importance of the position to Alabama as well as to Florida, induces him to make the request, as I am informed. It is believed at Washington, in South Carolina, and Georgia, as I am advised from high sources, that it is not only the policy of the Federal Government to coerce the seceding States, but as soon as possible to put herself in position by re-enforcing all the forts in the States where secession is expected. I need not suggest the danger to Florida and Alabama that must result from permitting a strong force to get possession of these forts.

With sentiments of high consideration and respect,

A. B. MOORE.

Private.] [STATE OF FLORIDA,] EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,

January 10, 1861.

Honorable JNO. C. McGEHEE, President of the Convention:

SIR: The inclosed dispatch has this morning reached me, and I hasten to transmit it through you to the Convention.

Very respectfully,

M. S. PERRY.

[Inclosure.]

(By telegraph from Washington, dated January 9, 1861.)

For Governor PERRY:

Federal troops are said to be moving, or to move, on the Pensacola forts. Every hour is important. Georgia and Alabama if called will aid in the work, we think. The two seaboard forts are vacant. Chase, at Pensacola, built and knows the works.

S. R. MALLORY.

GEORGE S. HAWKINS.

D. L. YULEE.

WASHINGTON, January 10, 1861.

Major W. H. CHASE, Pensacola, Fla.:

All here look to you for Pickens and McRee.

S. R. M. [MALLORY.]

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WASHINGTON, January 18, 1861.

His Excellency Governor PERRY, Tallahassee, Fla.:

We think no assault should be made. The possession of the fort is not worth one drop of blood to us. Measures pending unite us in this opinion. Bloodshed now may be fatal to our cause.

JNO. SLIDELL.

J. P. BENJAMIN.

A. IVERSON.

JNO. HEMPHILL.

LOUIS T. WIGFALL.

C. C. CLAY, JR.

BEN. FITZPATRICK.

JEFF. DAVIS.

S. R. MALLORY.

We sent this to Chase to-day.

WASHINGTON, January 19, 1861.

Gov. A. B. MOORE, Montgomery, Ala.:

Telegraph not to attack Fort Pickens. Florida Senators and friends think it unwise.

C. C. CLAY, JR.

BEN. FITZPATRICK.

WASHINGTON, January 20, 1861.

Gov. M. S. PERRY, Tallahassee, Fla.:

The Southern Senators all agree that no assault on Fort Pickens should be made; that the fort is not worth one drop of blood at this time, and desire us to invoke you to prevent bloodshed. First get the Southern Government in operation. The same advice has been given as to Charleston, and will no doubt be adopted there.

S. R. MALLORY.

D. L. YULEE.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,

Montgomery, Ala., January 28, 1861.

Honorable WM. M. BROOKS, President State Convention:

SIR: The following resolution has been handed me by the secretary of the Convention:

Resolved, That his excellency the governor be requested to communicate to this Convention forthwith any information he may have in reference to the propriety of withdrawing or continuing is service the troops now at Pensacola.

In answer to the foregoing resolution, I submit the following facts: On the 19th January the following dispatch was received by Colonel Chase at Pensacola, to wit:

WASHINGTON, January 18, 1861.

Colonel W. H. CHASE:

Yours received. We think no assault should be made. The possession of the fort is not worth one drop of blood to us. Measures pending unite us in this opinion. Bloodshed may be fatal to our cause.

Signed by Senators Mallory, Yulee, Slidell, Benjamin, Iverson, Hemphill, Wigfall, Clay, Fitzpatrick, and Davis.
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0446 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

Since the receipt of this dispatch, I have had a conference with Senator Mallory, of Florida, and Senator Fitzpatrick, of Alabama, in reference to the reasons upon which it was predicated, in which they informed me that they and Senator Slidell had a personal interview with the President and Secretary of the Navy, and were assured by them that no attack would be made upon Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens, or any excuse given for the shedding of blood, during the present administration, and that they deemed it of great importance that no attack should be made by South Carolina upon Fort Sumber, or by the troops of the seceding States upon Fort Pickens, in the present aspect of affairs. I was also informed by them that it was the policy of the Republican party to force a conflict between the Federal Government and the seceding States before the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln, so that the responsibility of commencing a war should not be cast upon him. It was further stated by Mr. Mallory that a special messenger had been sent by the Secretary of the Navy to the officer in command at Fort Pickens, directing that officer to prevent the ships which had been ordered to Pensacola from entering the bay. The officer sent was Captain Barron, of Virginia, in company with Mr. Mallory.

This is all the information now in my possession in reference to the attitude of the Federal Government and the seceding States.

In reference to the forces at Pensacola, I am informed by Colonel Chase that some companies from Mississippi, now at Pensacola, are desirous of returning home, being planters, business men, &amp;c. He has asked me what must be done in regard to this matter. I have answered him by telegraph that the troops are under the orders of the governor of Florida, and that the governor of Alabama cannot specially interfere with the Mississippi troops.

I have also received a dispatch from his excellency J. J. Pettus, governor of Mississippi, inquiring how long the Mississippi troops were desired to remain at Pensacola. I have telegraphed him that the governors of Florida and Mississippi have alone the right to control the troops of Mississippi.

Notwithstanding it now appears from the authority above given that no attack is to be made upon the forts at Pensacola now in the possession of our forces at that point, I deem it inexpedient that all the troops should be withdrawn. It is important that we should be provided for any emergency that may occur, and that a sufficient number of troops should be drilled and ready to meet it. If the troops should all be withdrawn from Pensacola, it may have a demoralizing effect upon them and upon volunteers generally, uncles kept under orders at some other point. It would be more expensive to the State to transport them to some other position and keep them under arms than to permit them to remain at Pensacola.

The withdrawal of the troops from Pensacola might induce the belief among the Black Republicans that resistance was not intended if coercion were attempted on their part, and thus give encouragement to them.

I have now briefly given the information in my possession, and also my opinion with regard to the withdrawal of the troops from Pensacola.

Very respectfully,

A. B. MOORE.
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0447 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.-CONFEDERATE.

HUNTSVILLE, ALA., February 3, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER, Montgomery:

MY DEAR SIR: There is at Pensacola an immense quantity of powder, shot, and shells, which ought to be removed to the interior at the earliest possible moment. Where they now are they are constantly exposed to the danger of recapture, and if they are permitted to remain, one of Lincoln's first movements will be to concentrate a sufficient force at that point to retake them.

In my judgment there is no hope of peaceful settlement of our difficulties with the Government of the United States, and all our calculations should be made with reference to the breaking out of a war of vast magnitude and almost unparalleled ferocity. We had the subject of these munitions before the military committee of our Convention, but as they were on the soil the Florida, and beyond our jurisdiction, we could do nothing. Your convention will have more extensive powers.

There is still much discontent here at the passage of the ordinance of secession, but it is growing weaker daily, and unless something is done to stir it up anew will soon die away.

Last Week Yancey was burned in effigy in Limestone, but I suppose it was rather a frolic of the "b'hoys" than a manifestation of serious feeling on the part of the older citizens.

I shall be glad to hear from you from time to time during the session of the Convention.

Very truly and respectfully, your friend and obedient servant,

JERE. CLEMENS.

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Montgomery, Ala., February 22, 1861.

His Excellency Governor PERRY:

SIR: The subjoined resolution was passed by Congress, in secret session, and the injunction of secrecy, you will perceive, has been removed only so far as to authorize me to communicate in the manner deemed expedient, and I must, therefore, ask that you consider it as confidentially done.* The resolution suggests two methods by which possession of the forts may be had. It was not intended, however, that the progress of the one should retard or effect the preparations for the other; while, therefore, steps are being taken for negotiation, earnest efforts have been made ot procure men of military science and experience, and to seek for munitions and machinery suitable to remedy the supposed or known deficiencies in the existing supplies. Congress, probably, did not design to interfere with the progress of constructions which had been commenced by State authority, the instruction of troops, or other preparation, which will be useful in further operations, and I hope you will continue thus to prepare for whatever exigency may arise. As soon as a skillful engineer is available he will be sent to make an examination of the fort within your State and to aid in the works needful to the execution of the resolution of Congress, should force be the means to which we must resort.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,

JEFF'N DAVIS.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0448 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

WAR DEPARTMENT,

Montgomery, March 7, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG,

Provisional Army, C. S. A., Commanding Troops near Pensacola, Fla.:

SIR: By the inclosed order you will perceive that you have been assigned to the command of the troops at and near Pensacola, Fla. It is of the greatest importance that the Government here should be accurately informed of the state of affairs in that quarter. The Secretary of War, therefore, desires that you will as soon as possible forward to this office and comprehensive report of whatever may come under your observation, especially in regard to affairs immediately connected with Fort Pickens. You will also be pleased to make reports to this Department as often as it may be convenient for you to do so. Very little information in respect to the nature of the service and its requirements at the station to which you have been assigned to command has reached this Government. The Department is anxious to know accurately the condition of things there and the necessities of the service, so that it can act with full intelligence, which is so much wanting at present.

A return of your command is required.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. DEAS,

Acting Adjutant-General.

[Inclosure.]

SPECIAL ORDERS,

WAR DEPARTMENT,

Numbers 1.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

Montgomery, Ala., March 7, 1861.

1. Brigadier General Braxton Bragg, of the Provisional Army, Confederate States of America, is assigned to the command of the troops in and near Pensacola, Fla., to which station he will proceed without delay.

* * * * *

By command of the Secretary of War:

GEO. DEAS,

Acting Adjutant-General.

CONVENTION HALL, MONTGOMERY, ALA.,

March 9, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, &amp;c.:

SIR: As one of the delegates to the Alabama State Convention I have received a letter from General A. C. Gordon, on Henry County, in said State, from which I make the following extract:

Nothing doing at Apalachicola. No cotton is selling, nor can shipments be made from that port. Unless some of our companies are sent to Apalochicola it will be burned up and out cotton taken if war should be declared. There is now over one million (value) of cotton at Apalachicola at ten cents. Call the attention of our President to the situation of our peoples in that particular. No forts or guns at that place to defend it. Two companies of volunteers are there without balls or powder. Something should be done, and that very soon, for the protection of that place and property. Alabama will suffer more than Florida will if that place should fall into the hands of an enemy.

A large portion of the people of Southeastern Alabama ship their cotton to that port for market, and apprehend danger to their interests there, as you will see from the above extract. Will you do me the kindness to make such suggestions in relation to the matter as you may deem proper?

Your obedient servant,

H. E. OWENS.

****************************************

MONTGOMERY, ALA., March 14, 1861.

Honorable S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy:

SIR: The port of Apaloachicola is without any means of defense, having only two hundred muskets and sixty rifles; no artillery of any kind. The commercial importance of the city may make it more than a point of ordinary interest to the United States Government, if they intend to enforce the collection of the revenue.

The citizens of the city are organized into four volunteer companies, which comprise about two-thirds of the people capable of bearing arms. They are under apprehension that the city and property therein is in danger.

I beg to call your attention to the fact, and request that some means of protection may be afforded us it there is a probability of hostilities. The men can be raised there, it we had the guns.

Yours, respectfully,

D. P. HOLLAND.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0451 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.

GENERAL ORDERS,

HDQRS. TROOPS CONFEDERATE STATES,

No. 4. Near Pensacola, Fla., March 18, 1861.

The commanding general learns with surprise and regret that some of our citizens are engaged in the business of furnishing supplies of fuel, water, and provisions to the armed vessels of the United State now occupying a threatening position off this harbor.

That no misunderstanding may exist on this subject, it is announced to all concerned that this traffic is strictly forbidden, and all such supplies which may be captured in transit to such vessels, or to Fort Pickens, will be confiscated. The more effectually to enforce this prohibition, no boat or vessel will be allowed to visit Fort Pickens, or any United States naval vessel, without special sanction.

Colonel John H. Forney, acting inspector-general, will organize an efficient harbor police for the enforcement of this order.

By command of Brigadier General Braxton Bragg:

ROBERT C. WOOD, Jr.,

Assistant Adjutant-General.


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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0453 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.


MOBILE, March 21, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

The sloop Isabella, laden with stores mostly for officers of the United States Navy at Pensacola, was seized last night by the acting mayor, and at the request of General Bragg.

W. J. HARDEE,

Colonel First Regiment Infantry

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WAR DEPARTMENT, A. AND I. G. O.,

Montgomery, April 6, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG:

The Government at Washington have determined to re-enforce Fort Pickens, and troops are now leaving for that purpose.

S. COOPER,

Adjutant and Inspector General.


HEADQUARTERS CONFEDERATE STATE TROOPS,

Near Pensacola, Fla., April 6, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: Your dispatch of the 5th instant reached me this morning, and was answered immediately. Mine of the 3rd,* asking if I might attack,

*No dispatch of the 3rd found; reference probably to that of the 5th; p.455.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0457 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.

was predicated on several occurrences which I could not explain in a dispatch, and which admitted of no delay. A strong easterly wind was blowing, calculated to drive off the United States naval vessels. It continues yet, but they hold on, though evidently with trouble. They have placed an Engineer officer in Fort Pickens in violation, as I conceive, of the agreement "not to re-enforce." And, finally, I have reason to believe the garrison in Fort Pickens is greatly demoralized by influences which are operating strongly in our favor. Under these circumstances I desired to know if I should be free to act when a favorable occasion might officer. Believing myself that the United States Government and some of its agents are acting in bad faith towards us, I do not hesitate to believe we are entirely absolved form all obligations under the agreement of 29th January; but as a question of political policy might be raised, I deem it prudent to ask the consent of the Department before acting on so important a matter.

I am not prepared with my batteries for anything more than a feeble defense (see my requisition for ordnance and ordnance stores), and that condition cannot be changed until I can get supplies. The only attack which I could hope to make now would be a sudden dash, distracting the enemy by a false attack, and scaling the walls in an opposite direction. The weakness of the garrison, and the ardor and ignorance of my troops, would be strong elements of success. In this movement I should not propose to fire a gun unless in the diversion.

Such is now the incessant occupation of my staff officers in receiving, supplying, and organizing troops that but little can be done in other preparations. We have the force and the labor necessary, but the skill to apply them is confined to a few.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

PENSACOLA, April 7, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Your dispatch of 5th answered by telegraph and letter. I shall fire upon any re-enforcements to Pickens unless ordered not. Need supplies called for in my ordnance requisition. have but few cartridge bags and no flannel. I shall send to Mobile for some to-day, but have no money to pay. Not a cent has been received since I arrived. Dispatches for Fort Pickens and the fleet can be received from Washington through the post office here. The blow is over, and the vessels stood it out. Twelve hundred men expected on to-day from Mississippi and Georgia.

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General.

MONTGOMERY, April 8, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

Our Commissioners at Washington have received a flat refusal.

L. P. WALKER.

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MONTGOMERY, April 8, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

The expression "at all hazards" in my dispatch of this morning* was not intended to require you to land upon the island. The presumption is that re-enforcements will be attempted at the dock, and this I hope you can and will prevent, though it should lead to assault of your works. The belief here is that they will not only attempt to re-enforce the fort, but also to retake the navy-yard.

L. P. WALKER.

MONTGOMERY, April 8, 1861.

Gov. T. O. MOORE,

Baton Rouge, La.:

The state of affairs at Pensacola requires that I shall urge you no longer to delay in sending forward corps. You cannot get them in time by enlistment. Why not take volunteer companies? I hope you will consider this most urgent.

L. P. WALKER.

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A.,

Montgomery, April 8, 1861.

Hons. B. F. SIMMONS, S. W. SPENCER,

J. J. GRIFFIN, J. L. DUNHAM,

Apalachicola, Fla.:

GENTLEMEN: I am instructed by the Secretary of War to reply to your letter of the 3rd instant, and to express his deep interest in the subject-matter of which it treats. He begs to assure you that the proper defense of every assailable point of our coast is the matter most pressing upon the consideration of the Department, and you may be assured that an officer will be sent to examine the harbor of Apalachicola at the earliest practicable moment. But you must remember, gentlemen, that the departments are but just organized, and that the pressure upon the Department of War is necessarily very great.

Trusting that the assurance given will be satisfactory, the Secretary directs me to express his regret that it is out of his power at present to comply with your request.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. J. HOOPER,

Private Secretary.

PENSACOLA, April 9, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Your dispatch received last night. Will do our best, but supplies are short for a continued resistance. Want transportation to move guns, shot, and troops. Sixteen hundred men arrived yesterday and last night.

BRAXTON BRAGG.

FORT MORGAN, April 9, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

SIR: It is the opinion of Major Leadbetter, Engineers, that the great number of sand bags reported on the way to Tortugas are intended for building cover-faces at Fort Pickens. If this be done that place cannot be breached by our present batteries.

W. J. HARDEE,

Colonel, C. S. Army.

---------------

*Dispatch not found.

---------------
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Note Agreement not to attack





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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0460 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

MONTGOMERY, April 12, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Just received the following from our manager in Mobile:

Worden was arrested yesterday and is in the hands of General Bragg.

Very respectfully,

HUBERT.

MONTGOMERY, April 12, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

Three companies of artillery from Mississippi and one from Georgia are on their way. Could you use more?

L. P. WALKER.

MONTGOMERY, April 13, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

When you arrested Lieutenant Worden what instructions, if any, did he show you? Did he communicate to you that he had verbal instructions, and, if so, what were they? He is here under arrest, and it is important for you to reply fully.

L. P. WALKER.

PENSACOLA, April 13, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Several merchant vessels here. Shall I capture such as belong to citizens of the United States?

BRAXTON BRAGG.

PENSACOLA, April 13, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

For service here volunteer companies of artillery are little better than others. They have not the right instructions. Every State is exceeding its quota. Shall I receive them? Landing shot at Fort Pickens, outside.

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General.

PENSACOLA, April 13, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War:

Re-enforcements thrown into Fort Pickens last night by small boats from the outside. The movement could not even be seen from our side, but was discovered by a small reconnoitering boat.

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General.

PENSACOLA, April 14, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Captain Adams, commanding the fleet, writes on 13th, just received.

Subsequently to the date of your last letter, as you are probably aware,

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0461 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.

re-enforcements have been placed in Fort Pickens, in obedience to orders from the United States Government. Lieutenant Worden must have given these orders in violation of his word. Captain Adams executed them in violation of our agreement.

BRAXTON BRAGG.

PENSACOLA, April 14, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War:

Lieutenant Worden assured me he only had a verbal message of pacific nature. The re-enforcement of Pickens was preceded by signal guns from there. What caused it I cannot ascertain. Worden's message may have had no connection with the move. He was in Pensacola when the move was made. Five thousand men here now, and two thousand more coming. Subsistence, forage, and transportation should be hurried. You can now spare the supplies from Sumter, which is ours.

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General.

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, Fla., April 14, 1861.

ADJUTANT-GENERAL C. S. ARMY,

Montgomery:

SIR: It is a matter of impossibility for me to keep you advised of the arrival of troops. They come under such various orders, and fail so often to report at all, that they are [here] for days sometimes before I hear of them. As near as I can ascertain this morning, by a visit of a staff officer to each camp, the inclosed statement of my present strength is very nearly accurate.* I am obliged to receive them by order, and let the muster rolls be made a afterwards.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

MONTGOMERY, ALA., April 15, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War, Montgomery:

SIR: Very unexpectedly I find myself a prisoner of war at this place. May I be permitted to request that you will do me the kindness to inform me of the grounds upon which I am so detained?

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN L. WORDEN,

Lieutenant, U. S. Navy.

PENSACOLA, April 15, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

Mail steamer Galveston from New Orleans this morning. I have taken possession of her. One United States ship arrived last night.

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General.

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*Not found.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0462 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

MONTGOMERY, April 16, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War, Montgomery:

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following statement in relation to my recent visit of Pensacola to your attention:

I left Washington City on the morning of April 7, with a communication from the Secretary of the Navy to Captain Adams, of the United States ship Sabine, and was informed by the Secretary that I would have no difficulty in making the communication to Captain Adams under the existing agreement. I arrived at Pensacola on the morning of the existing agreement. I arrived at Pensacola on the morning of the 11th instant, announced myself to Mr. LeBaron as an officer of the U. S. Navy, who sent an officer with me to General Bragg. I informed General Bragg that I had come from Washington, and desired to communicate with Captain Adams, of the Sabine. He wrote me a pass authorizing me to go to the Sabine, and upon landing it to me he asked if I had dispatches for Captain Adams. I replied that I had not written ones, but that I had a verbal communication to make to him from the Navy Department. I then asked him if I would be permitted to land on my return towards Washington. He replied that I would, provided Captain Adams or myself did nothing in violation of the agreement existing between them. I then left General Bragg and went to the navy-yard, from whence I embarked for the Wyandotte about 4 o'clock p.m. On reaching her I was informed by her commander that he could not carry me out to the Sabine that night, in consequence of the strong wind and rough sea on the bar.

During that evening Lieutenant Slemmer, of Fort Pickens, came on board, and I had a few moments' social conversation with him. I had no dispatches for him whatever, and I gave him no information as to the nature of the communication which I had to make to Captain Adams. Of course he knew, as did every officer on board, that I came from the Navy Department to communicate with Captain Adams. On the next

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0463 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.

morning, the 12th instant, while waiting for the sea to subside on the bar, so that the Wayndotte could go out, one of the officers suggested that we should go on shore and take a look at Fort Pickens, to which I assented. We accordingly, about 9 o'clock a.m., landed there, and walked about the ramparts for half an hour, and then returned on board. During my visit to the fort I did not see Lieutenant Slemmer, as he was asleep and I did not desire to disturb him, as I had no object in seeing him, except to pay him the proper visit of courtesy on going within the limits of his command.

At about 10.30 or 11 o'clock a.m. the Wyandotte went out of the harbor and put me on board the Sabine, somewhere near 12 o'clock. I made my communication to Captain Adams, and stated to him what General Bragg had said in relation to the agreement between them. He, nevertheless, gave me a written order to return to Washington as "special messenger," which order you have. Of course I proceeded to obey the order, and was landed by the Wyandotte at Pensacola about 5 o'clock p.m. I was told by Captain Adams that it was not necessary for me to see General Bragg on my return, and therefore I did not stop at his quarters.

I make this statement, ready with the solemnity of an oath to be confirmed. It is made, not with regard to personal safety, or of any consequences that might result to me personally, but purely in defense of my honor as an officer and a gentleman. Several officers in the Confederate service-among them I will mention Captain D. N. Ingraham and Surg. W. F. Carrington-I think I can appeal to with confidence.

I respectfully submit this statement to the consideration of the honorable Secretary of War.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN L. WORDEN,
Lieutenant, U. S. Navy.

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PENSACOLA, April 17, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Large steamer with troops joined the fleet last night. Send me instructed officers of Artillery for my batteries.

BRAXTONG BRAGG.
********************************

PENSACOLA, April 17, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Another naval steamer arrived to-day. Colonel Harvey Brown and several hundred men landed. Colonel B. informs me he will hold himself on the defensive.

BRAXTON BRAGG.
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MONTGOMERY, April 19, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

Events are such as to excite belief that demonstrations may be made upon you at an early day. I would, therefore, advise increased vigilance in preventing possible communication with the fleet or Fort Pickens. Martial law should be rigidly enforced. Everything is being done to send you guns and artillerists. We are badly off, however, especially in this latter particular.

L. P. WALKER.
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0464 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

MONTGOMERY, April 19, 1861.

J. E. BROWN,

Milledgeville:

Have just received your letter of the 18th instant.* You are mistaken about the fleet. It lies off Pensacola. Am willing to do anything necessary to defend Savannah and its approaches, but think you will concur in opinion that your suggestion is not now necessary. Pensacola and not Pulaski is the point. This is certain.

L. P. WALKER.

MONTGOMERY, April 19, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

Do you need for any purpose more troops than you have?

L. P. WALKER.

MONTGOMERY, April 19, 1861.

General BEAUREGARD,

Charleston:

Send to Pensacola the workman who planted and Captain Hamilton who superintended the construction of your floating battery. Hope you will do so at once. Mortars very much needed at Pensacola, and I hope you will send as many as possible, and without delay.

L. P. WALKER.

PENSACOLA, April 20, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

For the present force of the enemy I have enough, but cannot foresee his movements. It would be well to have a reserve force of three thousand under instructions on the railroad. Two companies mounted men are needed now. Just saluting Virginia.

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General.

GENERAL ORDERS,

HDQRS. TROOPS CONFEDERATE STATES,

No. 24. Near Pensacola, Fla., April 20, 1861.

I. All intercourse hereafter with Santa Rosa Island, Fort Pickens, or the United States fleet, is strictly prohibited.

* * * * * * *

II. Martial law is declared to exist and will be rigidly enforced on all territory within five miles of the lines of this army.

* * * * * * *

By command of Brigadier-General Bragg:

ROBERT C. WOOD, Jr.,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

MONTGOMERY, April 29, 1861.

Gov. J. E. BROWN,

Milledgeville:

I wish you to furnish immediately one regiment of infantry of picked men for Pensacola (private). Bragg needs them for lodgment on Santa Roas Island, preparatory to opening upon Fort Pickens. Dispatch is necessary. One regiment goes from here in a day or two. Would like to have it consist of drilled companies, if possible.

L. P. WALKER.

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*Not found.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0465 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A.,

Montgomery, April 30, 1861.

Brigadier General BRAXTON BRAGG,

Commanding at Pensacola:

GENERAL: Apprehending that you might have construed the suggestions thrown out from this Department as to the erection of batteries on Santa Rosa Island, and as to the attack on Fort Pickens, into orders to proceed first to the occupation of that island, and next to an immediate bombardment and general assault of the fort, I write to say that as to both points I desire you will consult your own judgment and discretion. It is true that this Government considers the early reduction of Fort Pickens as highly important, but it is not desired that you will proceed until you shall feel assured of success through an entire confidence in your own arrangements, and the dispositions must be left with yourself, save when positively instructed.

Very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER.

HEADQUARTERS TROOPS OF CONFEDERATE STATES,

Near Pensacola, Fla., May 6, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War, Montgomery:

From the tenor of my orders and instructions there has existed no doubt in my mind that the Department desired me first to secure the defense of my position here, and then the reduction of Fort Pickens, if practicable. No suggestion has been regarded as an order to proceed in any manner contrary to my own conviction, and no step has been taken which my own judgment has not approved; but I have felt it a duty to lay before you the means and sacrifices necessary to accomplish the object.

The change which has been made in my proposed plan of operations is the result of unavoidable delay, by which the enemy has been enabled to frustrate my first intentions. Fort Pickens is now more than twice as strong as it was three weeks ago, and the approaches to it will be made more and more difficult every day. They are now extending their operations on the island of Santa Rosa, and every hour will add seriously to the difficulties to be overcome. The importance of rapid movement on our part is very apparent if we are to proceed to the reduction of Fort Pickens, but it would be very bad policy to move until we are prepared to succeed. My plan for a lodgment on the island is arranged, and will be executed as soon as the means are available. In the present state of that work, with a garrison fully competent for its defense, and a support at all times ready at hand in the fleet, its reduction will cost us many lives, much time and labor, and a very large expenditure of money. Whether the end will justify the means the Department must decide.

My works on this side, both for attack and defense, are nearly completed, and preparations are going on for the island movement, but we are still deficient in many essentials. Five thousand sets of infantry accouterments are necessary for the preservation of our ammunition. It is now carried by the men in their pockets, and one day's hard service would destroy it all. A supply of musket cartridges is also a first necessity. Having yet had no response to my requisition of last March, I shall send an officer to Louisiana to see if some can be had at Baton Rouge. The present supply here would last me in an engagement about thirty minutes. Our best defense against the fleet-shells-cannot be used for want of fuses. Not one has yet reached me. These items are not mentioned

30 R R
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0466 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

by way of complaint, for I know full well the difficulties and embarrassments which surround the Department, but simply to show how utterly impossible it is to check the enemy in his operations.

Night before last we succeeded in placing some serious obstructions in the channel between Fort Pickens and McRee, which will intimidate the fleet and seriously retard any movement to enter the harbor. It might be much more effectually blocked, but at a heavy expense, for the necessary vessels. The entrance, however, of steamers would entirely frustrate our movement on the island, if it did not result in a capture of our force.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0468 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

MONTGOMERY, May 17, 1861.

General BRAGG,

Pensacola:

Can you spare from Pensacola, without interfering with your plans, a portion of your infantry for Virginia? If so, what number, and will you designate the regiment?

L. P. WALKER.

PENSACOLA, May 19, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

For offensive operations I require all I have. For mere defense I can send three regiments-one from Alabama and two from Georgia.

BRAXTON BRAGG.

NAVY-YARD, FLA., May 28, 1861.

His Excellency JEFF. DAVIS,

President:

Concurring fully in your suggestions,* I can spare twenty-five hundred men for Virginia and can start them immediately, well armed.

BRAXTON BRAGG.

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*Not found.

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[ Edited Sun Jul 31 2016, 09:26PM ]
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gpthelastrebel
Sun Jul 31 2016, 09:28PM

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Sending Men To Virginia


War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0469 Chapter IV. COTALLAHASSEE, June 1, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

I have been telegraphing you since the 13th ultimo relative to the two thousand troops raised under your requisition. We have batteries erected at several points on the coast, requiring at least two regiments to garrison. If Florida is to take care of herself, say so.

Respectfully,

M. S. PERRY.

PENSACOLA, August 2, 1861.

General S. COOPER,

Adjutant-General:

General Walker has been ordered to Richmond, upon certificate of his physician that it is dangerous for him to remain here longer. He is very feeble and failing daily. Can you possibly supply his place?

BRAXTON BRAGG.

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

Richmond, August 4, 1861.

General B. BRAGG,

Commanding, &amp;c., Pensacola:

GENERAL: Your letter of the 28th ultimo* has been received and submitted to the President, who instructs me to state that he has particularly noticed your suggestions respecting an increase of force to your command in the event of the movement indicated by you and to inquire how soon you think you would need the increased force, and at what point you would wish it to be assembled. Our present limited means is required to re-enforce where attack is most to be expected. This suggestion, however, is not made with any purpose of declining a compliance with your requisition, but simply in order that you may understand our necessities elsewhere.

The Ordnance Department has been instructed to increase your supply of ammunition for both artillery and small-arms, agreeably to your suggestion.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER,

Adjutant and Inspector General.

HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE, C. S. TROOPS,

Near Pensacola, Fla., August 8, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War:

DEAR SIR: Perhaps you would like to hear from this place, once of so much importance. The departure of General W. H. T. Walker and the sickness of Colonel Clayton have for a time placed me in command of the Second Brigade here. I have the First Alabama Regiment, the Seventh Alabama, and a Georgia battalion, with two independent companies, in all about two thousand three hundred men, with Fort Barrancas and three-fourths of all the batteries at this place. If there could be a fight I would have a fair chance for a place in it of some importance, but we look for nothing of the kind now. I believe that with three thousand additional troops Pickens can be easily taken, certainly with five

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*Not found. Entered in Confederate archives as referring to condition of affairs on Santa Rosa Island.
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0470 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

thousand. We have much sickness. In my eight infantry companies there are two hundred on sick-list. In First Regiment three hundred and twenty-four out of nine hundred and seventeen are sick. Not so many in the Georgia battalion. Our troops are dispirited by inaction, desponding at the thought that they will never have a fight. I have had several conversations with the general, and find that he is regrating that no opportunity could be afforded him on the field of Manassas to show his ability to control and fight an army. From what I have seen of him I have no doubt that his selection for this command has been a most judicious one. The army has throughout great confidence in him.

I find myself a good deal abused. I have established and maintained so far order and discipline in my regiment. It is difficult to bring volunteers down to a soldier's life, but we cannot succeed without it. If all the regiments at Manassas had been as well drilled as mine we would not have lost so many men. I refer to General W. H. T. Walker, who will be Richmond, as to my regiment and how we are doing.

Well, after all this I wish to say that if Virginia is to be the field of fight, that Pensacola is a fine place for a school of instruction, and the Seventh Regiment wants to graduate in about fifteen days or thereabouts, so as to make room for some green squad. We are only in for twelve months, and I am perfectly willing to stay here that long, but I want a place for the war. Alabama is offering many troops. I believe that I can take charge of a regiment and put it in fighting order in two months or less. If you transfer me to a regiment for the war, Colonel Coltart will have command here. He is a fine officer, and just now far more popular than I am in the regiment. If, then, Alabama should offer a number of companies sufficient to make a regiment, for which no commander has been selected, I ask for the post, to be transferred, and I refer to all the officers of this Army, regulars and volunteers, as to qualifications in drill and discipline.

I rejoice over Manassas for many reasons, and over the valor of the Fourth Regiment our boys have shouted time and again. I trust that the Government will find all their efforts crowned with success, and when we shall have soundly whipped the scoundrels the just meed of praise will certainly be given to the man who is his office is laboring day and night to maintain and care for our vast Army. May Heaven bless you and strengthen you for your great labors.

Truly, your friend,

S. A. M. WOOD.

HEADQUARTERS THIRD REGIMENT FLORIDA VOLUNTEERS,

Fort Clinch, near Fernandina, Amelia Island, August 12, 1861.

Honorable J. MORTON, G. T. WARD, J. B. OWENS,

or L. P. WALKER, Richmond, Va.:

DEAR SIR: Having been recently elected and commissioned colonel of this regiment, I ask that you will give your attention to the following views: I have six companies of infantry on this (Amelia) island, two at the mouth of the Saint John's, and two at Saint Augustine. On this island there is a sort of battery, but incomplete. The guns, four in number, 6-pounders, are badly mounted, and would not stand continued firing. I regard the battery and guns as very little protection, the range of the guns being too short to protect the channel. I have heard that forty 32-pounders were ordered over here, also a competent engineer

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0471 Chapter IV. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. - CONFEDERATE.

I hope this is so. This will satisfy our wishes on this point. Our companies here are composed of from eighty to one hundred men, more than enough to manage the guns at the battery, while their other duties in guarding the coast will give them ample employment. I would, therefore, ask that I be allowed to raise an artillery company of sixty-four men, which should be attached to this regiment. This company I could raise in a very short time. But more important to the defense of this island than anything is a company of dragoons or mounted men. This island has a sea coast stretching along the Atlantic eighteen miles in length, at any pont of which the enemy could land any number of troops in surf-boats.

The enemy's war vessels are in sight every day; one, supposed to be the Vincennes, having on Monday burned a prize within a mile and a half of the shore. They also anchored on last Thursday evening within two miles of the shore, opposite this town, making the distance, land and water, from the town three and a half miles. Now, if I had a horse company I could patrol the sea beach, and they could not land without my being in so as to meet them at the place of landing. With a cavalry company I could so dispose my infantry as to meet them, the enemy, at almost any point they may attempt to land; but with only six companies on the island, placing one of these at the battery, then you have five infantry companies to protect and guard a coast of eighteen or twenty miles. I hope, therefore, that a company of dragoons will be allowed me in addition to what I have in my command. I regard this as absolutely necessary to our proper defense, and ask to refer you to a report which Captain McRory has furnished at my request, he having been captain of a volunteer artillery company on this island.

I have not as yet visited the mouth of the Saint John's or Saint Augustine, this regiment only having been organized on the 11th instant. As soon as I can see those places I will, if necessary, report their condition.

One more suggestion. I think the Georgia and Florida Atlantic coast ought to be placed under the command, the nature and character of the defenses necessary being the ---

[Letter not finished.]

N. B.-I have no drill officers. My regiment is composed entirely of citizens. I would be glad to have two drill officers attached to this regiment immediately. If I cannot have them sent here I could engage them here if I had the authority.

Be pleased to attend to this without delay, and believe me, yours, respectfully,

W. S. DILWORTH,

Colonel, Commanding.

MARIANNA, FLA., August 16, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War:

SIR: I have recently visited Apalachicola and Saint Vincent's Island; examined the work that has been done in the construction of the fort, and concur in the opinions expressed in the inclosed letter from Lieutenant J. A. Alexander, in reply to inquiries made by me. Citizens of Apalachicola have promised to furnish the teams. Of all places in this State Apalachicola is most important to the commercial interests of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and at present is in a condition almost defenseless. Now is the time to prepare for its defense. A few weeks hence

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0472 OPERATIONS IN FLORIDA. Chapter IV.

may be too late. The enemy is well acquainted with the localities, and my opinion is that if they shall attempt to take Apalachicola they will land their forces for the purpose between Saint Joseph's Bay and the city. If successful they would capture all the vessels in port, a quantity of provisions, and other valuable property, and having cut off supplies from the troops on Saint Vincent's Island would create a necessity for their surrender. It is not probable the enemy will make the attack with a force which they may believe insufficient to accomplish these purposes.

I have examined with care the face of the country six miles in rear of Apalachicola, toward Saint Joseph's Bay, and the grounds are very favorable for defense by artillery, cavalry, and infantry; and if no attack shall be made before the 15th of October I will endeavor to have State troops placed in suitable positions to co-operate successfully with such troops as may be there in the service of the Confederate States.

I am, very respectfully, sir, yours, &amp;c.,

JOHN MILTON.

If an officer who is a good artillerists could be sent to Apalachicola he could render very efficient service in the arrangement of cannon and drilling of troops to use them.

[Inclosure.]

APALACHICOLA, August 10, 1861.

General MILTON,

Governor Elect of Florida:

SIR: I have the honor to report that there is an absolute necessity of ten teams in order to complete the fortifications now in process of erection on Saint Vincent's Island, and in addition to its present armament, viz, four 32-pounders, mounted on ship carriages, we shall require four 32-pounders on barbetter carriages, and two 24-pounders on siege carriages. For the defense of the Saint Joseph's road, we shall require to 24-pounders, on siege or field carriages. There is an exceedingly small supply of ammunition here, which deficiency it is necessary to remedy as early as possible, and we are in immediate need of at least one thousand friction primers.

I have the honor to be, sir, yours, very respectfully,

J. A. ALEXANDER,

Lieutenant, C. S. Army.

ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

Richmond, Va., August 17, 1861.

General BRAXTON BRAGG,

Commanding, Pensacola:

GENERAL: Your requisition for ordnance and ordnance stores, inclosed with letter of 7th August, 1861, has been referred to the Bureau of Ordnance and returned with report that there are no guns. These guns have been especially in demand for Manassas, and great efforts are being made to supply this want. With regard to disposition of the company, the Secretary of War decides that it is a question whether you can employ it advantageously without these guns, or whether with a different armament it might not serve more advantageously elsewhere, which your discretion can determine.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. CHILTON,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

End of Pensacola
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[ Edited Sun Jul 31 2016, 09:39PM ]
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